Friday, March 1, 2019
Implications for Education Using Frueds Theory Essay
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian conglomerate known until recently as Czechoslovakia. His category was Vienna where he study and practiced medicine until 1938 when Austria was annexed by the Nazis. With the Nazi annexation of Austria he went into transport in England and died in London in 1939. Freud made a big(p) contribution to psychology and erudition scheme with his uncovering of the emotional character of unconscious motivations. His genius theory though not entirely limit in all its prospects brought to our awargonness the unconscious level of the human opinion. As a result we atomic number 18 aware of some previously unknown aspects of human emergence. We now know that the mental conflicts of the neurotic are not fundamental conflicts of human disposition.Instead they are based on the motivating forces and social conflicts of the social environment within which the individual soulfulnessality develops and functions. The concept of normality makes sense only within the setting of nature of the social environment in which the individual is functioning. Freuds scientific discovery of the unconscious has contributed to the wiseity of the role of the unconscious in the motivation aspect of learning the basis of the valuing process intrinsical to the human organism (intrinsic motivation) and the importance of the emotional nature of motivation as a determinant for effective learning. This is of great significance to learning theory and so to educational theory. The emotional nature of motivation for learning is a secern aspect of educational theory of the so-called paradigm of education for ontogeny of the person as a whole i.e. holistic education.In 1923 Freud described his constructs of the id, ego and the superego. The id is the most primitive part of our nature. It operates according to the diversion principle and it simply seeks immediate gratification. Freud believed that any human ha d a behavior and death sense. The flavour instinct is called eros while the death instinct is called thanatos. Both are integral parts of the id. And the energy for this mechanism is libido, a flowing, dynamic force. The ego is different from the id as it is extremely objective. It operates according to the globe principle and deals with the demands of the environment. It regulates the flow of libido and keeps the id in check, thus acting as a go center of the personality. It is the superego which represents the values and standards of an individuals personality. It acts as an midland judge, it punishes the ego with touch perceptions of guilt or it rewards, which lead to feelings of pride and heightened self-esteem.The superego is a attribute of the personality which strives for perfection. concord to Freud, the disparity and development of the id, ego and the superego, determines an individuals behavior in a presentn situation, which in turn results in the development of t he personality. Freud placed great importance on the early age of a child as he believed that what we are as adults is dogged by childhood experiences. Freud called these early historic period of development the psychosexual years of development. These early years proceed through a number of stages. all(prenominal) child undergoes the different stages. These stages are the oral stage (first year of life), the anal stage ( second year), phallic stage (third through fifth year), a period of latency (from 6 to 12), and the genital stage (after puberty). Freud believed that as every child passes through these stages there might be a in all likelihood possibility that a child may spend more cadence in a particular stage then they aught to. This pattern can lead to a fixation or an incomplete development of the personality.A critical event during the first five dollar bill years of life is the experience of Oedipus and Electra conflicts. Freud believed that both sexes encounter a nd must deal with these turmoils, which result from sons developing sexual attraction toward their m other(a)s, and girls developing sexual attraction towards their fathers. A boy may have feelings of jealousy towards his father as he is an obstructor between him and his mother. And, they fear retaliation by their fathers if they are caught (fear of castration). Since the boy loves his father, these feelings are repressed and he begins to identify with the father, adopting his values. Similarly girls develop hostility towards their mothers, unconsciously blaming their mothers for not being equal with boys. They assume that something is missing and feels inadequate (penis envy). some other major aspect of psychoanalysis is the development of defense mechanisms.According to the theory defense mechanisms are used by the ego to protect the person from anguish. Repression is when information is pushed down into the unconscious. This information is either unpleasant or hateful and m ay cause fretting. Very often this information is pushed so sound down into the unconscious that is hard to retrieve. Reaction formation is when due to anxiety feelings are replaced by the extreme opposite. For instance a person feeling hate lead be replaced by love. Undoing is when the ego all in all changes actions which lead to feelings of anxiety. In this mechanism the truth may be drastically distorted. Projection is when an individual tends to assign ones own shortcomings on to someone else. Rationalization is when an irrational act is made to appear rational. defense team occurs in cases where the ego is threatened and a person refuses to acknowledge the honesty or seriousness of the situation.Identification involves empathizing with the qualities or characteristics of another favorable person. retrogression and Regression are related mechanisms which occur during psychosexual development. Psychoanalysis is overly a therapy. It is based on the observation that individua ls are often insensible of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behavior. Psychoanalytic treatment demonstrates how these unconscious factors affect on-going relationships and patterns of behavior, traces them back to their historical origins, shows how they have changed, and helps individuals to deal better with the realities of adult life. though primarily of historical interest, an understand of Freudian theory may entrust splitroom t to each oneers insight into the importance of unconscious feelings and drives that motivate some learner behavior discounts for teachingWhen applying psychoanalysis to children or young pupils, a teacher must take a broad view by exploring the substantial range of psychoanalytic literature available.When applying psychoanalytic theories to children in the classroom, activities are typically categorized into either behaviorism or cognitivism. Behaviorism focuses on conspicuous behaviors, such as a child who will share her t oys versus a child of the same age who refuses to share. Behaviorism also looks at learn and social learning to understand where a child picks up his personality traits and habits. Cognitivism looks at mental processes and events rather than tangible behaviors.Cognitive bodily structure, or the structure and function of the brain, is of particular concern here. In cognitive science, psychologists are relate with whether behaviors can be justified chemically or structurally in biological differences between people. When behaviorism and cognitivism are understood, teachers, parents and psychologists can attempt to act behavioral disorders from a social conditioning and chemical perspective. A behavioral problem may be rooted in either or both areas of psychoanalysis.An example of a classic activity used for psychoanalysis in the classroom is role playing. During a role play, the teacher exercises control over the basic setup of the scenario. Students then act within those boundar ies to arouse original decisions and actions. In each scenario, a student knows there are things she should or should not do. For example, if the scenario involves seeing another child break a rule, the actor in the role play must decide what to do. Should he tell the teacher, attempt to punish or correct the child himself or let the child get away with it? Classroom activities around psychoanalytic theory can be public or anon..An example of an anonymous psychoanalytic activity is the question and answer game.Students salve anonymous questions rough social situations on a piece of paper and submit them to the teacher. The teacher will pass the questions back out to students, making sure each student gets a question he did not write. Students take the questions home and answer them overnight, and resubmit them anonymously. The teacher then reads them aloud for class discussion.1. attainment is a process of active construction.Learning is the interaction between what students know , the saucy information they encounter, and the activities they engage in as they learn. Students construct their own understanding through experience, interactions with field of study and others, and reflection. command ImplicationProvide opportunities for students to connect with your content in a variety of meaningful ways by victimisation cooperative learning, interactive lectures, engaging assignments, hands-on lab/field experiences, and other active learning strategies. 2. Students prior knowledge is an important determinant of what they will learn. Students do not come to your class as a distance slate. They use what they already know about a topic to run across new information. When students cannot relate new material to what they already know, they tend to get wordlearning for the trialrather than developing any real understanding of the content.Teaching ImplicationLearn about your students experiences, preconceptions, or misconceptions by employ pre-tests, backgro und knowledge probes, and written or oral activities designed to expose students thinking about the topic. 3. Organizing information into a conceptual framework helps students think of and use knowledge. Students must learn factual information, understand these facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and organize knowledge in ways that comfort retrieval and application in order to develop competence in a new topic.Teaching ImplicationSupport students by apply concept maps, flowcharts, outlines, comparison tables, etc., to make the structure of the knowledge clear. 4. Learning is a social phenomenon. Students learn with greater understanding when they share ideas through conversation, debate, and negotiation. Explaining a concept to ones peers puts knowledge to a public test where it can be examined, reshaped, and clarified.Teaching ImplicationUse Cooperative learning strategies, long-term group projects, class discussions, and group activities to support the soc ial post of learning.5. Learning is context-specific.It is often difficult for students to use what they learn in class in new contexts (i.e., other classes, the workplace, or their personal lives).Teaching ImplicationUse problem-based learning, simulations or cases, and service learning to create learning environments connatural to the real world.6. Students metacognitive skills (thinking about thinking) are important to their learning. Many students utilize a few(prenominal) learning strategies and have alimited awareness of their thinking processes.Teaching ImplicationHelp students become more metacognitively aware by mould your thinking as you solve a problem, develop an argument, or psychoanalyze written work in front of the class. Teach metacognitive strategies, such as setting goals, making predictions, and checking for consistency. Focus attention on metacognition by having students write in a learning journal or develop explanations of their problem-solving processes. conclusionPsychoanalytic (or psychosexual) theory deals primarily with personality and postulates that human behavior is actuate by inner, unconscious forces, memories, and conflicts (Feldman, 1998, p. 26) that often stem from early life experiences. According to this theory, there are three basic structures of the personality the id (which consists of the irrational libidinal drives that motivate the person to seek pleasure and sexual gratification), the ego (the rational part of the mind), and the superego (essentially the conscience which counterbalances the impulses of the id).Development occurs through a sequence of five psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) which focus on a body part (or sensitive zone) that becomes the center of pleasure or gratification (Rice, 1997). Defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, rationalization, and displacement, which serve the important purpose of temporarily distorting reality to relieve anxiety or reduce conf lict, are also important components of Psychoanalytic theory. though primarily of historical interest, an understanding of Freudian theory may give classroom teachers insight into the importance of unconscious feelings and drives that motivate some student behavior.