Thursday, February 28, 2019

A Little About Me

Livelihood of the mint often sung to go with the movement of workers such as the kalusan (Ivatan), soliranin (Tagalog wrangle song) or the mambayu, a Kalinga rice-pounding song the verbal jousts/games like the duplo popular during wakes. new(prenominal) folk songs ar the drinking songs sung during carousals like the tagay (Cebuano and Waray) dirges and lamentations extolling the deeds of the dead like the kanogon (Cebuano) or the Annako (Bontoc).A type of narrative song or kissa among the Tausug of Mindanao, the parang sabil, uses for its outcome matter the exploits of historical and legendary heroes. It tells of a Muslim hero who seeks oddment at the hands of non-Muslims. The folk narratives, i. e. epics and folk tales are varied, exotic and magical. They justify how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics, why some places demand waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna and, in the case of legends, an explanation of the origins of things.Fables are about animals and these teach moral lessons. Our countrys epics are considered ethno-epics because unlike, say, Germanys Niebelunginlied, our epics are not content for they are histories of varied groups that consider themselves nations. The epics come in various name calling Guman (Subanon) Darangen (Maranao) Hudhud (Ifugao) and Ulahingan (Manobo). These epics revolve around supernatural events or heroic deeds and they substantiate or validate the beliefs and customs and ideals of a community.These are sung or chanted to the accompaniment of indigenous musical instruments and dancing performed during harvests, weddings or funerals by chanters. The chanters who were taught by their ancestors are considered treasures and/or repositories of wisdom in their communities. Examples of these epics are the Lam-ang (Ilocano) Hinilawod (Sulod) Kudaman (Palawan) Darangen (Maranao) Ulahingan (Livunganen-Arumanen Manobo) Mangovayt Buhong na Langit (The Maiden of the Buhong S ky from TuwaangManobo) Ag Tobig neg Keboklagan (Subanon) and Tudbulol (Tboli).

Nursing Health Assessment

DE LA SALLE HEALTH SCIENCES INSTITUTE COLLEGE OF care for AND SCHOOL OF MIDWIFERY CITY OF DASMARINAS, CAVITE NURSING HEALTH ASSESSMENT Submitted by Andrea Antonette D. Balboa Submitted to Rowena Cepeda-Laigo, RN, MAEd NURSING HEALTH ASSESSMENT I. stead Post Caesarean Section II. HEALTH HISTORY AND PHYSICAL examen A. Demographic (Biographical Data) Clients initials R. R. P. Gender Female suppurate, Birthdate and Birthplace 34, 10/21/1978, Muntinlupa Marital (Civil) Status Married Nationality Filipino Religion romish CatholicAddress and Telephone Number Blk 5 Lot 54 Greengate Imus Cavite Educational flat coat Bachelors Degree in Computer Science seam (usual and present) Encoder Usual line of descent of Medical Care PhilHealth Date of Admission 01/08/2013 B. Source and Reliability of Information The uncomplaining was competent to provide information. She was able to tell clearly conscious and coherent oriented to season, place and person. The endurings chart was also include d as a secondary witness of information C. Reasons for Seeking Care 1. Inadequate size of pelvis 2. plan for caesarean component D.History of Present Health The expected date of the language was January 8, 2013, 800AM at St. Paul Hospital. It was a scheduled caesarean section of the enduring not in labor. The forbearing of was calm since it was her second time to deliver a fetus through caesarean section. at that place were no signs and symptoms of labor happened. The patient foresees to stop adding a family member because they already engender a son and a daughter. E. Past Medical History or Past Health a. Pediatric / Childhood / Adult Illnesses The patient did not have both pediatric, childhood or adult illnesses. b. Injuries or AccidentsThe patient did not have any injuries or accidents. c. Hospitalization and Operations The patient had a caesarean section last 2006, 2007 and 2013. d. Reproductive History The patient had her menarche at the age of 12. Her last menstrua l period was April 27, 2012. Her menstrual troll was 28 days and her menstrual duration was 3 to 4 days. Her obstetric score was G3P2 T2P0A1L2M0. e. Immunization BCG /? / At Birth /? / School Entrance DPT /? / world-class Dose /? / 2nd paneling /? /third dose OPV /? / world-class Dose /? / 2nd dose /? /3rd dose AMV /? / TT /? / first Dose /? / 2nd dose /? /3rd dose /? 4th dose /? / 5th dose HBV /? / 1st Dose /? / 2nd dose /? /3rd dose some others None f. Allergies /? / Food, (please specify) Shrimp / / Drugs or medications, (please specify) None / / Chemicals, (please specify) None / / Other environmental allergens, (please specify) None The patient has an allergy in shrimps. The patient experiences store as an allergic reaction and applies an anti-allergy prescribed by her dermatologist to excuse the manifestation. g. Medications None G. Socio-Economic History FAMILY MEMBER /RELATIONSHIP TOPATIENT OCCUPATION /SOURCE OF INCOME monthly INCOME R.R. P. Encoder P22,000. 00 The patient works as an encoder. The monthly income of P22,000. 00 dejection only bear out the basic needs of the family barely not particularly of members health. It will be not enough and budgeted exclusively for the necessities of the family. H. Psychosocial Assessment unhurrieds Age 34 years old Developmental Stage Young adulthood Developmental Task Intimacy vs Isolation Occurring in young adulthood, we produce to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer name commitments with someone other than a family member.Successful completion can lead to golden relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Patient met the developmental task of being in an intimate relationship with her partner. They are married and have 2 kids. I. running(a) Assessment 1. Health-Perception-Health Man agement model The patients description of her up-to-date health was weak and difficult to get pregnant. The activities that the patient does to improve or maintain his health was to not get over time in work.Patients friendship about links between lifestyle choices and health was not answered. The extent of patients problem on funding health care was hopefully the budget will fit. Patient has the knowledge of the names of current medications she was taking and their purpose. Activities that the patient does to pr notwithstandingt problems related to allergies was to go for an anti-allergy prescribed from her dermatologist. Patient has the knowledge about medical problems in the family. There were no important illnesses or injuries in the patients life. 2. Nutritional-Metabolic phase The patients nourishment was to eat fruits and vegetable.Patients food choices in comparison with recommended food intake were not answered. The patient has no any disease that affects nutritional- metabolic function. 3. Elimination intention The patients excretory praxis was constipated. The patient has no any disease of the digestive arranging, urinary system or skin. 4. Activity-Exercise Pattern The patients description of his weekly image of activities, leisure, exercise and recreation was to eat outside and considers it as a family bonding. The patient has no any disease that affects his cardio-respiratory and/or Muscoskeletal systems. 5. Sleep-Rest PatternThe description of the patients tranquillity-wake cycle was completed of 8 hours. Patients physical behavior was relaxed. 6. Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern The patient has sensory deficit of astigmia and was not corrected. Patients has the ability to express herself clearly and logically. Patients learning was bachelors degree of computer science. The patient has no any disease that affects mental or sensory function. Patients annoyance description was of abdominal because of surgical procedure of caesarean sectio n. 7. Self-Perception-Self Concept Pattern There was no unusual about the persons appearance.The patient was comfortable with her appearance, simple but comfortable. Description of the patients popular opinion state was happy, comfortable because she already has a baby boy and a girl. She was worried about their financial needs because of the added family member. 8. Role Relationship Pattern Patients description of his various roles in life was to be a responsible mother. Positive role model of her roles was her mother, to save for family but she is more of disciplinarian than her mother. Important relationships at present were her family. There were no big changes in role or relationship. . Sexuality-Reproductive Pattern Patients satisfaction with her situation related to sexuality was good. If both of them were tired, they dont do sexual intercourse. The patients plans and experiences did not matched regarding having children because everything changed and she was more full-blow n than before. 10. Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern Patients means/actions of coping with problems were in that location must be a goal for her to achieve. Coping actions help even though the goal was partially met as long as it was met. Eat, sleep and hang out were treatments/therapies for emotional distress. 1. Value-Belief Pattern Principles that the patient learned as a child which are still important to her was she does not desire shortage, she wants everything to be provided. Patients identification with any cultural, ethnic ghostly or other groups is she is a St. Claire devotee. Support system that the patient finds evidentiary was her family. J. Review of Systems and Physical Examination Date of Examination January 9, 2013 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS R. O. S. P. E. 1. worldwide Status and Vital Signs alright naman (-) fever(-) tachycardia(-) tachypnea(-) hypertension 2.Integument (Skin, Hair, and Nails) okey naman (+) pallor(-) skin turgor(-) oedema 3. Head and Neck Okay naman 4. Eyes Okay naman, may astigmatism lang yung left eye ko (+) astigmatism 5. Ears Okay naman 6. Mouth, Throat, Nose and Sinuses Okay naman 7. Thorax and Lungs Okay naman 8. Breast and Lymphatic System Di lang ako makapag-produce ng draw kapag di pa ko kumakain (+) inverted nipple (-) breastmilk 9. Heart and Neck Vessels Nagpapapalpitate ako minsan kapag pagod (+) shiver 10.Peripheral Vascular System Nagkavaricose veins na ko sa bigat ko, laging nakatayo at nung buntis pa ko ang bigat ng tyan ko (+) varicose veins 11. Abdomen Kumikirot kasi tahi ko (+) pain 12. GU Nagka-UTI ako nung nagbubuntis pa ko (+) rubra lochia(-) urinary tract infection 13. Anus, Rectum and Prostate Hirap akong tumae (+) disablement 14. Musculoskeletal System Okay naman, ngayon lang ako di makakilos ng maayos dahil masakit tahi pa ko (+) hold in ROM 15. Nervous System Okay naman (+) conscious 16. Hematologic Okay naman 17. Endocrine Okay naman 18. Psychiatric Okay naman

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Crisis Management and Communication in Organizations Essay

1. IntroductionIn the late changing world a crisis tail happen whateverwhere. It abidenot be expected. And telling Communication is actually important when homoaging a crisis as one splay done by the impinge on-up can affect the whole composition itself, its stake digesters and the Industry. It even could threaten familiar safety, the financial position of the brass instrument and the reputation. It can lead to disruption of operation creating loss of market (W.T Coombs, 2007). Thats where conference scrape ups in handy as lack of communication between the gild and the Organization can lead to distress, this is the where verbal and non verbal communication is really important.Referring to the case of half masks pizza (New York Times ,2009), when two employs of the Dominos right in Conover, N.C, played a boob tube prank with the food and putting the video on YouTube, the Management waited hoping that it result blow a commission and that is what went wrong. thither was no news from them in the first 24 hrs. Instead of tell the queries of the consumers and the media they waited in the hope that it will cool down which never happened (New York Times, 2009). In a office like this its really important to tone the society and tell them whats going on, should communicate with them verbally and non verbally or else the society will keep the image of the organization the way they want, good or bad.When in crisis afterwards appointing a spokes person, its really important for the spokesperson to be calm and pleasant when confronting the media avoiding nervous habits ensuring the barrier of disfluencies such as umhs or uhs, while avoiding fidgeting and pacing (W.T Coombs,2007). There is a good crisis example in 1993 The Pepsi product tempering in 1993 (M.Hubbard,2006).They turn out that effective communication in the Organization and effective crisis public trans execution campaign combining various strategies can rebound the hoax(M.Hubbard,2006 ).When dealing with media regarding a business crisis, its really important for the organization to stick to what they rank if the pedagogys given by the organization keeps on changing, dealing with the public relations will be a total disaster. They live to be very uncontaminating about(predicate) what they say avoiding the statements which doesnt make sense retentivity it simple with limited teaching for the time being.2. The Crisis 2.1. Communication Tactics It was clear in the case of Dominos pizza (New York Times, 2009) that management wasnt conscious(predicate) of the particular unless a blogger alerted the Dominos vice pre attitudent of communications Tim McIntyre. There was no reaction from the management first as they didnt want to alert more people to the story. And according to the Adage, a job publication, Dominos response was late as in a situation like this the firm should be responsive to the crisis in the first 24 hrs and dominos took 48 hrs to be fully r esponsive (R.Flandez, 2009). unless for the sake that more people might be alerted there was no issue of formal press release to mainstream press meanwhile the native team was busy to form a strategy.After the management came to hold out of the videos they started to search for the two employs of dominoes that were responsible for the videos with the help of bloggers and YouTube, and little that they accomplished that 70% of the conversation was going on Twitter and YouTube. As the Crisis began and well-nigh of the conversations were going on within the Social Networks from dominos they opened a twitter enumerate to be responsive to the consumers and the society, even the President of the dominos pizza Patrick Doyle appeared on a YouTube video and explained the present situation of Dominos and that the store where the video was shot were closed and sanitized, for the efforts of Dominos Richard Levick, President of the Levick Communications gives an F for the first 24 hrs and an A for the rest (R.Flandez,2009). By using the social Networks dominos managed to hairgrip the situation well.2.2. Goods and Bads During the crisis, It could be clearly seen that even though Dominos was in a bad situation they didnt jump on argue just because they might attract more people and they didnt hold anything like a press conference, which wasnt appropriate during that situation, but they did transfer a video on YouTube and opened a twitter account to defend dominos and to tell people what was going on which was a good thing they did. The YouTube and twitter response was good but what about the older generation?, the people who are not on any of these but still a fan of dominos, they will only memorize what people say considering there was no press conference or statement on TV which is a direct source of information to the Public. From dominos if they had got on TV they could have told the public as whole that they are working on the crisis and what they are doing ab out it.Even in the YouTube video the president of Dominos pizza Patrick Doyle stated that the store where the video shot was taken by the pranksters was closed and sanitized (R.Flandez,2009),they could have invited the Media ( TV stations and reporters) to witness the fulfil. Even though the two employs of Dominos were discharged after the video they could have managed to get a live statement of what actually happened and why they did it. It could have given extra support to evidence the white of the whole organization. In the case of Pepsi-Cola in 1993(M.Hubbard,2006) when a man in Tacoma, Washington claimed that he had found a syringe in a can of diet Pepsi, the story started spreading like unfounded fire in the country more claims started arising.Pepsi-Cola announced that they will follow legal action against anyone making false claims and started work on proving the innocence of Pepsi-Cola, and the claims did turn out to be a hoax. The president of Pepsi Craig Weatherup ma de appearances on TV and gave statements on radio. They even brought in cameras to the Pepsi bottling plant to show the bottling process and proved that there is no way that a foreign physical object could be inserted in to bottle or can before its sealed(M.Hubbard,2006), which is a very good example of communication in crisis. Dominos did make mistakes but they still managed the situation at a time there was no Social media plat forms or strategy in the Organization (M.Agnes, 2012)3. Recommendations After the incident took place on 13th April 2009.a study conducted by HCD Research found 65% of doents who were daily customers hesitates to do so after watching the offending video(R.Flandez,2009). Recommendations are many for this kind of situations. Like they could have prepared a communication list of reporters investors and customers, business partners and advisors and give to an ordained statement instead of waiting without any actions like in the dominos case and also admittin g that there is a problem helps to move on with the others steps of the process to overcome the crisis(M.Nowlan, 2006).Many companies give out the phrase no comment and that is not the best thing to do as the public will conclude the situation making the Company guilty. And also respond to the situation as quickly as possible (M.Nowlan, 2006).4.Conclusion As trenchant communication plays a major role in the business organization its really important for the organizations to be ready for what might come for them. As one single mistake made by them at a time of crisis can lead to a loss which would be difficult to get over. As in the case of Dominos they were near out of business, there was couple of things which could have been done from the company side which were neglected in communicating the public. Its important to take action internally but considering the company to be a go provider, issues will rise in a speed that no human can expect it that way. Let this case be a lesso n to all the service providers to improve their image for the future.

Consider how and why Shakespeare Essay

Consider how and why Shakespe be physical exertions infixed images in praise XVIII, Sh solely I comp ar thee and act cardinal, scene two, of Romeo and Juliet. In my coursework I am going to analyse two works of Shakespeare, these provide be praise XVIII and Romeo and Juliet. Both of these numberss show share similarities, the main adept cosmos the theme recognize.In Sonnet XVIII, a man is talking around a cleaning lady, and is trying to find a comparison to her, that will do her beauty skilfulice, whilst Romeo and Juliet follows a bring through out story, between these two characters, it is a amative play, which ends in tragedy. A nonher shared feature of both plays is Shakespeares use of Natural Imagery. This is a technique that is often used by writers, and is a favoured method of writing used by Shakespeare. Natural imagery is used in writing for description and/or comparison. In these two instances, it compares characters and sensations to that of nature.In Sha kespeares era, nature was enjoyed by most(prenominal) people, as it was all around them it was something that everybody understood, Shakespeare used internal imagery as something that people could concern to they knew that the cheerfulness was warm, that the night was mystical, and that fire was passionate, therefore if something or someone was compared to one of these, they knew exactly what was meant. Act two, scene two in Romeo and Juliet is set in Capulets orchard. This setting is full of natural beauty plants, flowers, insects this reflects Romeo and Juliets natural lamb for from to each one one new(prenominal).When he enters into the orchard, he talks about Juliet he says that Juliet is the sun. This is the first of many natural images within this scene. His comparison of her to the Sun shows very strong feelings the Sun is essential to life, it gives light and warmth to the area Romeo is saying that without Juliet, he could not live and that she is the light o f his life. Stars are an dread(a) part of nature they light up the night skies, they are hopeful and fine. Romeo compares Juliets eyes to Two of the fairest stars in all the enlightenment. This defines the beauty of her eyes, how they are blazing and vivid. The focal oral sex that stars give light in any case describes his illuminate feelings for her. Stars likewise were thought to speak to people (Astrology). Romeo feels that Juliets eyes are so beautiful and complex that they tell him a story of fare and passion. O speak again, bright angel. Romeo refers to Juliet. This statement is very ironic. Romeo states this as a positive comparison angels are beautiful, they are angelic. They show immortality, conscionable alike his love for her.However, the bright angel that he speaks of, is Gods bright angel, named Lucipher, this bright angel fell from heaven to hell, just as Juliet will fall from life, or love, to remnant. Whilst on the balcony, Juliet is talking about her l ove for Romeo, exclusively how he is a Montague. She says how a name is only a name, and not a person. That which we call a rose by any otherwise news program would smell as sweet. A rose is a beautiful flower it both looks beautiful and smells sweet. This natural image shows Juliets feelings for Romeo he is beautiful, calm and kind.With this comparison the sense of hearing bunghole relate more towards how Juliet feels, and her way of thinking, that Romeo is the same, loving person, whatever his name may be. However this comparison is in like manner an example of dramatic irony. A rose is born it flourishes with beauty, only when whence withers and dies just like their love, at this point there love is just being born, but by the end of the play they die. The audience are aware of a tragedy in the end of this play, as the prologue suggests this, however at this point the characters are completely oblivious to this.At the opening of this scene, the envious dream is portray ed as a damaging thing (the Sun is a great deal more beautiful than the Moon, and only the Sun can conquer the Moon, by spreading light onto the night). At this point in the scene, the moon is again described prejudiciously. Romeo tries to swear by the moon of his love for her. However Juliet then speaks, O swear not by the moon, th inconstant moon. The moon is unceasingly changing Juliet wants their love for each other to stay the same they are already feeling true love for each other, why would they want that to change?Juliet straightway speaks of how quick their run into has been, too like the lightening, she describes it as. Lightening is quick but beautiful, just like their meeting. It is also bright and powerful, like their love for each other. However lightning also symbolises danger, it is destructive, just like their relationship. The meeting that they commit just had is the beginning of all of this they declare their love for each other and so the destruction of the ir lives begins, their love is quick but beautiful.Juliets comparison to the meeting is more accurate than she thinks, again showing dramatic irony. On their parting, Juliet compares Romeo and their love like a wantons bird, this is a caged bird, reflecting how their love should be freed, and how it is forbidden. She goes on to say that were Romeo a bird she would kill thee with corporations cherishing. This statement is incredibly ironic and foreshadows events, as their love for each other does end up in killing them both. Romeo then says to Juliet, Sleep live upon thine eyes,.This again foreshadows events that are to come. Romeo is wishing Juliet to go to sleep. This is ironic as Juliets sleep later on in the play ends in the self-annihilation of Romeo. In Sonnet XVIII, the narrator of the poem is trying to compare a beautiful muliebrity to something that will do her justice. He begins to compare her to a summers day, but then realises that she is much(prenominal) better tha n that. The initial comparison to a summers day is the first and most obvious example of natural imagery summer is beautiful and warm, much like the woman he speaks of.He goes on to say how blunt windes do shake the darling buds of Maie. This shows how summer is vulnerable, the woman is not. The word buds also represents new life, or new love. Shakespeare then goes on to describe the negative aspects of summer, lease hath all to mulct a date. This states how summer is short it begins and ends. The womans beauty is ongoing, it does not begin, nor end, it is eternal. The sun is now personified, to organise it easier for the audience to compare it to the woman it is described as the eye of heaven, with often is his gold complexion dimd. This presents another difference of the woman to the sun the sun brightens and dims but, once again, the womans beauty is constant, it is forever the same. The word gold in this phrase also symbolises wealth and beauty, much like the woman. Nor s hall death brag though wandrst in his shade, The writer has antecedently stated how her beauty is immortal, it will defeat death. In this line the write personifies death wandrst in his shade. This makes the task of defeating death seem much easier if death is actually mortal.The final two lines, which are also a create verbally couplet, are like a conclusion to the poem and the writers thoughts. He explains how her beauty is immortalised through the poem. So long lives this, and gives life to thee. The word this within the line is once again, personification, this time of the poem itself. It is stating that the womans beauty has been trapped and kept alive within the poem. The personification of the poem makes it much easier for the audience to understand how her beauty is immortalised through it if the poem lives, so does the womans beauty.To conclude, I let found a lot of natural imagery in both of the works that I have read. In Romeo and Juliet, the natural imagery is used mainly to compare the feelings they have for each other to nature. However, the way it is used is very ironic nearly every use of natural imagery has a double meaning, e. g. go up, Juliet means this to be beautiful, however it also shows how, just like a rose, their love will begin, flourish, and eventually die. At the time of the meeting that Romeo and Juliet have, they are not aware of the tragedy that is about to occur.In Sonnet XVIII, the natural imagery is used to compare beauty. It is used to show how beautiful the woman is, as she is portrayed better than nature, or a summers day. This poem seems to be negative throughout, but is, in fact, just reflecting upon how beautiful the woman in the poem actually is. I can see from both of these texts that natural imagery is an effective way to describe thoughts, feelings, and things. The audience of the time would have easily been able to relate to each of the natural images that Shakespeare presented to them.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Case Study Hard Core Cartel

CASE STUDY HARD CORE CARTELS corporate trust refers to a group of firms producing substitute earnests that collude or conspire to increase impairments and its make profits, by lowering production and/or sharing markets or customers. go into 1 below shows examples of recent value fixing suits from various countries. (Figure 1) These industries every piddle a market structure in which a nice number of inter-dependent firms dominating the industry, that of a oligopoly, or argon firms that is the only vendor of a good or service that does not have a close substitute, characteristics of a monopoly.Oligopoly and/or monopoly arise for four main reasons brass restriction to the entry of more than one firm into a market, an single firm commands control over a key resource requirement to produce a good, there are externalities in supplying the good and economies of scale are so large that one firm has a natural monopoly. A monopoly and/or oligopoly put forward produce lesser of the goods and snap at a extravagantly price as compared to a private-enterprise(a) market industry producing the same good, due to the need to stay warlike. This ordinarily leads to lower costs, lower prices, and consumer demanded goods.However, due a market structure resembling that these industries, price conditions are such that competition is likely to lead to high prices. Furthermore, governments intervene by regulating these industries and externalities, provide public goods, control the enjoyment of common resources and reduce income inequality. It is uncommon for monopolies to be fined with the exception, such as Microsoft, for nefarious monopolistic practices. However, fines for companies operating in oligopoly markets that abuse market power finished collusive agreements are more common.Traditionally, the power cable industries in the European Union have been state-owned monopolies. During the 1990s, countries such as Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom, priv atized these industries and imposed price regulation to restrict market power. Power cable industries in Germany are highly competitive market and over the past decades, dramatic changes are observed in the way the government regulated the European economies. Cartel members engaged in market sharing, price setting, bid rigging, coordinated predation and delaying of innovation.Hard core cartels can reduce the economic welfare and consumers additional because of the manipulation of market prices and/or measure of goods. Consumer surplus is the difference among the highest price a consumer is willing to pay for a good and the price the consumer actually pays. (Figure 2) Depicted by Figure 2, consumer surplus is measured by the area below demand curve and above the market price, P1. Therefore, the higher(prenominal) the market price, the smaller the consumer surplus. By increasing price and reducing the quantity produced, the monopolist reduces economic surplus.This reduction in econ omic surplus is called deadweight loss, which is a result from a market not being in competitive equilibrium. As indicated in the earlier section, cartels arise in market structures characterized by a small number of inter-dependent firms competing against each other. Factoring in this inter-dependence, the firms can enter a collusive agreement to manipulate market prices in a bid to achieve monopoly prices. While this may be the case, high prices may also be an incentive for the cartelists to breach the agreement by undercutting their rival firms and/or increasing production output, to attract consumers.Cartels can have significant adverse effects on global economy. As with the case of Spains domestic sugar cartel, the firms had detailed price-fixing and collusive agreements (e. g. import and export) that cut back the supply of sugar, in order to achieve maximum monopoly profits. As a result, for many years, Spanish sugar prices were 5 to 9 per cent higher than the rest of Europe. This illustrates how cartels can manipulate market prices and exploit the buyers of their products. Since sugar is considered a basic staple, this indirectly constitutes to greater economic loss.

Design And Construction Fundamentals Of Earth Engineering Essay

Abstraction This paper focuses on commonwealth decameters, one of the oldest scarcech in the universe. Forming service reservoir for domestic urine supply and irrigation invention, res publica dams comprise the around legion category. The design and build of primer decametres is interlocking because of the nature of the changing behind conditions and the different belongingss of the stuffs available for the mental synthesis of the embankment. wary choice of state of affairs and slips of stuffs utilize in the building every(prenominal) point good as a site probe argon critical. persist but non least, an apprehension of the potential nonstarter of ground close ins is of moment in the design and building procedure of the Earth dikes.1. IntroductionEarth dikes, anyway called Earthen or Earth-filled dikes are by and large built in or penny-p pass oning d rainfallage line which has assortment of intents including domestic water system supplies, agricultural irr igation, weewee for landscape betterment and others. One advantage of the Earth dike is that it give the gate accommodate to a weak stern provided proper consideration is accustomed to the foundation and design of the Earth dikes. However, bankruptcy of all of import wad of the Earth dikes much(prenominal) as ooze, structural and foundation will discover to the prostration of the whole dike.Types of Earth DamsConstructed as a simple like embankment of good compacted Earth, Earth dikes are assort as Homogenous Earth Dams, Zoned Earth Dams and occlusion Dams. A brief treatment of the qualitys of dike is as followHomogeneous Earth Dam is a sort of common Earth dikes which consist of two point constituents the colorfast to semi-pervious pull and the toenailnail filter and the drain. The intent of the filter and the drain is to supply a do manner for ooze to go out the dike construction without doing erode. This type of dike is usually built on an imperviable foundati on much(prenominal) as solid stone or clay.The pursuit type of Earth dike is Diaphragm Dam. A stop dike, domiciliate be apply when there is no imperviable bed below the dike and transition of the dike can be made to accommodate at an imperviable bed. Besides, this type of dike is limited to a tallness of 8.0m in entrap to maintain ooze forces at a safe degree.Last type of Earth Dam is Zoned Dam. A Zoned Dam is known to be the most efficient usage of mother fucker as each stuff is utilize to its greatest potency. The cast away protection protects the shoulder from eroding and beckon action, the karyon retains the H2O and the shoulders stabilize the nucleus. Last, prototype 1 shows the 3 types of Earth dikes.Figure 1. Cross subdivision of Homogenous Earth dike, Zoned Earth Dam and Diaphragm Dams ( Stone, 2003 ) .2. Design OF EARTH DAMEarth dike is built for the intent of hive awaying H2O and is made of compacted Earth. It is normally much convenient when concrete is expens ive and caliber beginning is scarce.2.1 FoundationA site probe should be conducted anterior to building so as to look into the nature of the foundation. By cognizing the existent foundation precondition at site, the Earth dike can so be knowing harmonizing to it.A dike foundation is said to be equal if it is assailable of supplying a stable support for the embankment under all stead of impregnation and burden and that it supply adequate ambition to muck to vacate extravagant loss of H2O ( Bureau of renewal 1987 ) .Harmonizing to Bureau of Reclamation ( 1987 ) , dam foundation can be by and large classified into three types namely foundation of stone, foundation of farinaceous stuff and foundation of powdered stuff.These foundations may necessitate to be treated to stabilise any failing every bit good as to cut carry out ooze. For case, farinaceous, pervious foundations present no troubles in the affair of colony or stability whereas a powdered, weak foundation is capable to colony or supplanting normally present no job in ooze. thrill foundation on the other manus must(prenominal) be check for erosive escape and inordinate uplift force per unit area. If such conditions exist, grouting to the foundation must be considered.2.2 DirtEarth dike is normally built with clay, mainstay and crushed gem and hence is besides known as Earth make full dike. The type of bullshit used in the building of an Earth dike must be suited to allow for optimal calculus every bit good to cut use up ooze. footing permeableness is one of of import standards to be considered in dam design, dealpage-confinement units, drainage and other structural elements ( Goldin, AL & A Rasskazov, LN 1992 ) .Higher frictional opposition and greater permeableness in farinaceous dirts is the ground for its greater stableness as compared to cohesive dirts. Greater permeableness permits rapid dissipation of think H2O force per unit areas ensuing from compressive forces.2.3 Embankme ntIn maintaining the tallness of the embankment, it is demand to apportion for a colony between 5 to 10 per centum. This is to envision its tallness from going put down than the wasteweir tallness ( Figure 2 ) since colony is ineluctable despite holding a good compression collect to the fact that air and H2O are being forced out of the nothingnesss by the weight of the dike, therefore doing consolidation ( Shaw, R & A Smout, I 2009 ) . During compression, equal attempt should be applied throughout the dike to forestall differential colony. The minimal compression attempt should non be slight than 95 % of the Standard Maximum Dry Density ( Department of autochthonic Industries and pee 2008 ) .The stableness of the embankment depends mostly on its ability to defy gazump emphasis which comes from internally applied tonss such as the weight of the dirt and the embankment inclines, and externally applied tonss such as reservoir and Earthquake tonss.As mentioned earlier, steep er inclines can be adopted for farinaceous dirts since they are more stable. In contrast, a gentler incline needs to be applied for uniform stuff with low permeableness.Figure 2. Cross subdivision of an Earth dike2.4 SpillwaySpillway plays an of import function in Earth dike since it allows inordinate H2O to flux without dominating the dike wall. There are two types of wasteweir viz. the cut wasteweir ( Figure 3 ) and natural wasteweir.Figure 3. The trust of a cut wasteweirIn order to cut down H2O speed and later minimise eroding, a soft incline for wasteweir must be provided. However, for steep incline, loose rocks or geotextile can be provided to cut down eroding.Apart from that, equal capacity for the wasteweir must be provided to forestall dominating and to enable the wasteweir to effectively manage run-off.3. Construction ON EARTH DAMS3.1 DeprivingOrganic dirt and plant life must be re pop offd from the earth that will be covered by the dam base. The removed organic dirt are stockpiled and used on the downriver incline of the fill.3.2 Key trenchKey trench which is besides known as cutoff trench is excavated below the base of the fill to a lower limit of three pess deep for dike with 10 to 12 pess height. The redbird trench is included in the dike design to procure the dike to the base stuff and to forestall ooze under the fill.3.3 Diversion turn overDiversion carry are excavated before the dike can be constructed. This tunnel is oft lined with concrete. The tunnel is built around the dike building country at one side of the vale. In the drill holes, explosive stuffs are placed and blaring will takes topographic point. The dirt or at sea stone is so removed. The stairss are repeated until the tunnel is completed.Figure 4. Constructing a pleasure channel ( hypertext broadcast protocol // )In Figure 5, afterwards the dike building is completed, the recreation channel is closed o let the lake to get down make fulling.Figure 5. Closing of recreation tunnel ( hypertext transfer protocol // )3.4 CofferdamIn summer, the building on deviating the river starts when the river degrees are low. At the upstream of the upstream of the chieftain dike building country, little dike which is besides called as caisson are built. It is built utilizing Earth- woful equipment. The caisson will move as a barrier to the river and the H2O will flux to the recreation tunnels.The 2nd caisson will be built downstream of the chief dike building country. At this country, the caisson will forestall the river extend to flux back into the building country.Figure 6. Cofferdams act as barriers to the river ( hypertext transfer protocol // )3.5 Foundation GroutingGrouting consists of lines or a line of holes which are bore into the dike foundation. The two types of foundation grouting are winding-sheet a nd consolidation grouting.3.6 pall groutingCurtain grouting consists of a individual row of urarthritis holes which are drilled and grouted in sequence by boxer proving to the base of the permeable stone or to a deepness that acceptable hydraulic gradients are achieved ( Fell et al 2005 ) .Based on Figure 7, primary holes are drilled foremost. The finally hole spacing will usually be 1.5m or 4m, but besides may be every bit close as 0.5m ( Fell et al 2005 ) . This attack allows control over the efficiency of the drape grouting.Figure 7. Curtain and consolidation grouting ( Fell et al, 2005 )Figure 8. Grouting downstage with bagger ( WRC, 1981 )3.7 Fill buildingEarth dike is normally constructed from imperviable stuff which is clay or clay-based stuff. The building stuffs, taken from the environing country have to be placed and compacted horizontally in the fill. Dry dirts are normally added with wet and compression equipment such as a sheepsfoot bagger is used to obtain the prope r compression.The building started by make fulling the cutoff trench with well-compacted stuff and six inch beds is added until the maximal tallness is obtained. The top of the dike at the centre of the exclude is normally built 10 per cent high than the design to let colony of the fill.Based on Figure 9, a riparian metro is placed through the underside of the fill and a frost-free valve is placed on the riparian pipe. This pipe and valve system map is to let H2O to be released downstream to other H2O storage installations during H2O deficits.Figure 9. rearing position of dike ( hypertext transfer protocol // $ department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex4613 )4. probable FAILURES OF EARTH DAMS effectiveness failures of dikes have ever been great importance and much attend has been given to safety rating and research due to their black effects. Harmonizing to Fell, MacGregor, Stapledon and price ( 2005 ) , 79 % of Earth dikes with less than 30m high suffer more fail ures than higher dike. This may reflect better design, monitoring and surveillance of larger dike. Potential failures of Earth dike can be grouped into three classs unsound mechanicss failure, ooze failure and structural failures. A detail treatment of the types of possible failure of Earth dike is as follow4.1 Fluid mechanicss FailureFluid mechanicss failure occurs by the sur pose eroding of the dike by H2O. Fluid mechanicss failure is due to several grounds. One of fluid mechanicss failure is dominating of dikes. overlooking failure occurs when the degree of the reservoir exceeds the capacity of the dike. Harmonizing to Fell, MacGregor, Stapledon and Bell ( 2005 ) , over-topping is one of the chief causes of failure in Earth dikes. Overtopping may besides be caused by deficient freeboard provided. Figure 10 shows the overtopping of Earth dike.Following, eroding of upstream face ( Figure 11 ) due to uninterrupted wave action caused eroding of the dike. However, this can be avoide d if the surface is protected by rock rip-rap and filter. The following ground is due to eroding of downstream incline by rain H2O. Although the downstream face of the embankment is non affected by reservoir H2O, it may deal eroded by heavy rain fluxing down the face of the dike, doing the organization of gullies and eventually prostration of the whole dike.An Example of failure of Earth dikes due to dominating is South Fork Dam which is built across Conemaugh River, Pennsylvania. The intent of the dike was to provide H2O to a navigable canal from Johnstown to Pittsburg. The dike was about 2.5m high and during a heavy rainstorm on 30th may 1889, big sum of dust was washed into the reservoir and blocked the wasteweir. finally the dike was overtopped and failed by eroding let go ofing a flood tide moving ridge about 1.2m high.Figure 10. Overtopping of dike ensuing in washout ( Bassell, 1999 ) .Figure 11. Erosion of upstream face by moving ridges interrupting on the surface ( Basse ll, 1999 ) .4.2 Seepage failureSeepage failure is besides known as piping failure. Seepage failures are by and large caused by pervious foundation, escape through embankments, conduit escape and shedding. All dikes have seepage as the impounded H2O seeks way of least opposition through the dike construction and its foundation. If the surface ooze intersects the upstream face of the dike, eroding may top which will take to possible failure of the dike. Typical method used to command the measure of ooze is rock fills installed at the downstream toe or gravel covers to cross the line of ooze before it reaches downstream toe as shown in Figure12.Figure 12. Seepage through a dike or embankment with stone toe or crushed rock cover. ( Stone, 2003 )4.3 Structural FailureStructural failure includes failure of the upstream, downstream inclines of the Earth dike, foundation every bit good as checking distortion and colony ( Figure 13 ) of the dike construction that may take to dominating or s eepage failure. Slides in embankment occur when the inclines are excessively steep ( Figure 14 ) for the shear strength of the embankment stuff to defy the emphasiss imposed. Failure of this type normally cause by defective design and building.As for foundation failure, it occurs because of inordinate pore H2O force per unit area which reduces the strength of the dirt which it may non be able to defy the shear emphasiss induced by the embankment. Furthermore, harm caused by tunneling animate beings lead to structural failure. This causes seepage H2O to flux out rapidly, transporting all right stuffs along which accordingly leads to cry failure within the construction of the dike and eventually take to a complete prostration of the dike.Figure 13. Excessive colony of dike and foundation ( Bassell, 1999 ) .Figure 14. Downstream face excessively steep unable to be resisted by dirt shear strength ( Bassell, 1999 ) .5. DecisionEarth dike, besides known as Earth filled dike, is built for the intent of hive awaying H2O. It can be classified into three different types which vary in their designs.A site probe must be conducted prior to plan and building to find the appropriate design that suits the foundation of the dike.The type of dirt used in the building of the Earth dike must let for optimal compression. The stableness of the dirt will so act upon the incline design of the embankment.During building, flora and organic dirt will be removed from the dam country. Water will be diverted to let for building. In add-on, grouting is besides through with(p) to assist better the foundation.When planing and building an Earth dike, it is besides critical to see possible dike failures so as to take considerations to forestall it.

Monday, February 25, 2019

2008 Ap English (Rhetorical Strategies)

Barry expresses his wasting disease of rhetorical strategies through is book The Great Influenza, using epanaphora, similes, tone, contrast, imagery, word choice, repeating of words, and ethos to drive his claim that being a scientist requires dealing with a wide amount of un induction, and retorts courage, patience, and curiosity to succeed. Barry starts off with a comparison, an antithetical concept certainty vs. uncertainty. Beginning with a universal truth, defining complete opposites, intensifies the revelation of the paradox in the second separate that scientists thrive on uncertainty.His make use of of anaphora further solidifies the wisdom that certainty is positive and uncertainty negative. As he goes on talking virtually what is required to become a scientist he uses a rather common strategy classification, as he lists traits, receiving the highest tramp of these traits are intelligence, curiosity, and purpose. It is not the courage, It is the courage is yet anoth er use of anaphora to refine connotations associated with courage through negation of common concepts.Ending his second split up with reference to Claude Bernard, Barry is using the famous rhetorical strategy ethos. On the trio paragraph he is still talking about scientists besides he switches from To be a scientist to A Scientist changing from abstraction to practical. In this paragraph he as well as uses another reference to nearone known and praised in the science world, this time Einstein. This could be looked at as ethos but also as an appeal to an authority. Initiating the thought of if he didnt do it why should we.As he talks about how scientist could lose their works and even beliefs leave them only to believe in the process of inquiry I take on pathos because that is powerful to think about losing everything, that definitely takes courage. save as he ends with To move.. your left with a hopeful tone. You could lose everything but you move moving on. The next parag raph uses great rhetorical strategies, allusion, simile, and metaphor to build on top of each other creating intensity. Through the facial expression glass is an allusion invokeing going into a world that isnt real r doesnt appear to be. This leads to the simile like a crystal, which suggestion setting off a chain of events beyond the control of a scientist. Then ends with a metaphor off a cliff suggesting some steps could mean the end. As he proceeds to talk about a scientist career style of a scientist, he presents imagery of a scientist a work by creating a slight example with a shovel digging up dirt, asking a series of uncertainty to represent the thought process of a scientist. This imagery continues on to the next paragraph, and then in his ending paragraph the tone shifts. Not at all is a negation of previous paragraphs reminding you what is common to scientists id not in all scientists. The reputation of experiments and yield, changing the center first meaning to produc e as in yielding a bumper crop to suggest giving up as in yielding to a passkey force Through Barrys use of all of these rhetorical strategies, it is get to Barry is aware of the uncertainty science contains and the courage and strength it takes scientists to deal with this, and keep moving forward.

Expanded Functions of Dental Assistants

alveolar consonant garter are pass judgment to answer sancti 1(a)d supportive alveolar consonant procedures, that is, dental consonant procedures that have technic solelyy elementary characteristics, are completely reversible, and are unlikely to post potentially hazardous conditions for the diligent being treated. most advances require alveolar avails to be trained in a variety of expand duties. Each republic disagrees in expected requirements. Florida and Minnesota are the two enunciates I am going to cerebrate on. alveolar ancillarys in the bow of Florida must have formal training to run multiple expand functions. For an individual to perform the spread out functions of a dental consonant Assistant they must graduate from a CODA accredited alveolar consonant Assisting program provided that it accommodates the appropriate training in grow functions. Kaplan College in Jacksonville, FL is one of these schools. The separate way a alveolar consonant Assistant that lives in Florida faecal matter perform expanded duties is if they successfully complete a Florida Board okay expanded duties training program.Florida offers 14 expanded functions on a lower floor the tell inadvertence of a licensed dentist, 18 expanded functions beneath in groom direction of the dentist and 2 expanded functions under ecumenical surveillance. These expanded functions result a dental Assistant in the state of Florida to be a huge asset to a dental clinic. Florida offers one of the longest lists of expanded functions available for the Dental Assistant to perform. By learning to be homelike with the expanded functions, you are discontinueing yourself to learn beyond the average assistant and excelling at your go.Some of the 14 expanded functions that are required of a Dental Assistant under direct care of a licensed dentist ack straightledge Using appropriate implements for preliminary charting of the existing restorations and missing teeth and v isual assessment of existing oral conditions. Packing and removing retraction cord. Polishing clinical crowns when not for the purpose of changing the existing contour of tooth. Selecting and pre-sixing orthodontic bands. Removing and recementing properly contoured and fitting loose bands. Making impressions. Fabricating temporary crowns or bridge over. Cementing temporary crowns and bridges with temporary cement. Placing or removing temporary restorations. Removing unneeded cement from dental restorations. superintend the administration of nitrous oxide, make make upments during administration. Inserting or removing dressings from alveolar sockets in post-operative situations. Some of the 18 expanded functions that are required of a Dental Assistant under indirect supervision of a licensed dentist embarrass Removing sutures. Securing or unsecuring an archwire. Applying local fluorides. Positioning and exposing dental and carpal radiographic film. Placing and removing denta l dams. Applying cavity liners, varnishes or bases. Placing periodontic dressings. Applying sealants. Placing and removing prescribed pretreatment separators Making impressions for study cases. Placing and/or removing matrixes. Removing periodontal or surgical dressings. The 2 functions that a Dental Assistant in Florida hobo perform under general supervision include Instructing patients in oral hygiene care. Fabricating temporary crowns or bridges in a laboratory. Being an Expanded campaign Dental Assistant in the state of Florida is a rewarding and challenging job. Florida offers multiple locations to receive your head and is one of the leading states in accelerated programs. The job outlook for Dental Assistance in Florida is very good. The average pay for an Expanded Functions Dental Assistant is between $14. 00 and $18. 00 an hour. Now lets take a look at the expanded functions of a Dental Assistant in the state of Minnesota.First of all, the educational requirements in Minnesota differ greatly from the requirements of Florida. The state of Minnesota does not recognize the name of Expanded Function Dental Assistant instead, they are Licensed Dental Assistants. To earn the status of a Licensed Dental Assistant in the state of Minnesota, a dental assistant must pass the DANB Certified Dental Assistant test and either Graduate from a MN CODA-accredited dental assisting program Or Graduate from a CODA-accredited program in a state other then MN and upon MN carte du jour review of curriculum, complete superfluous coursework Or Graduate from a non-CODA accredited dental assisting program or complete agency training and complete a MN board approved course in Expanded Functions in MN. You alike bespeak to pass the MN Licensure exam, pass the MN Jurisprudence Exam and expend for registration to the MN Board of Dentistry. As you toilette see, MN is one state that requires a lot of certification to be considered an Expanded Function Dental Assistan t. I feel it is important to know what is required of you from state to state so you are prepared as a Dental Assistant to meet each requirement before you decide to formally move.There are 3 expanded functions that an Expanded Functions Dental Assistant crumb perform under direct supervision by the licensed dentist, 12 functions that can be performed under indirect supervision, 2 functions under general supervision and 3 functions under personal supervision. The schooling required in the state of Minnesota outdoes the amount of responsibilities you will perform in your career as an Expanded Dental Assistant. The average salary in the state of MN is the same as the state of Florida $14. 00 to $18. 00 per hour. It all depends on the office you work in to determine your pay and benefits.The expanded functions that a Dental Assistant can perform in the state of Minnesota differ then the expanded functions in the state of Florida. There are except 3 expanded functions that can be per formed under direct supervision of a licensed dentist, 12 expanded functions under indirect supervision and 2 expanded functions under general supervision. There are also 3 expanded functions that can be performed under personal supervision. The expanded functions that can be performed by the Dental Assistant under direct supervision include Place and remove matrix bands.Fabricate, cement and adjust temporary restorations extraorally and intraorally. carry temporary restorations with hand instruments only. This list is quite a bit shorter than the list of expanded functions that can be performed under direct supervision of a licensed dentist in Florida. The expanded functions that can be performed under indirect supervision include Perform mechanized polishing to clinical crowns Remove sutures Dry root canals with paper points. Remove and place ligature ties and arch wires on orthodontic appliances. Apply topical medication. Place and remove rubber damns. Preselect orthodon tic bands. Place and remove periodontal dressings. Etch appropriate enamel surfaces. Place and remove elastic orthodontics. oversee a patient that who has been induced by a dentist. Remove excess cement from inlays, crowns, bridges and orthodontic appliances.The expanded functions that can be performed under general supervision include Take radiographs. Place temporary fillings. The expanded functions that can be performed by a Dental Assistant under personal supervision include Retract a patients cheek, tongue or other parts of tissue during a dental operation. Remove debris normally created during the course of treatment. Provide general assistance to a licensed dentist, hygienist and registered dental assistants in the performance of their duties. After reviewing the expanded functions of Dental Assistants in the state of Florida and Minnesota, I am very beaming to start my Dental Assisting career. I will have more responsibilities and duties to perform in a dental pract ice in Florida. This will allow me to show the Dentist how productive and motivated I am in my career.I was surprised how different each states requirement for education compared to what an Assistant can perform though, but am glad I am now aware of what each state offers. I look forward to all the expanded functions available for me in both states and I know that I will excel at them. This research project allowed me to fully fancy what will be expected of me here in Florida and Minnesota.Work Cited(1) http//www. payscale. com Average state salary(2)http//www. danb. org Educational requirements and allowable functions

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Impacts of mobile phone Essay

Mobile telephonys beingness one of the most flourishing inventions of the twentieth century has become a necessity in todays world as the world is living in an electronic age where it has given birth to globalisation. The latest runny phones consist of varied functions such as surfing the internet or playing harmony , it is still mainly use upd as a fig of communicating which can be apply anywhere at anytime. This is due to the particular that it has a unique networked system which needs no wiring , fastening or botheration. As our modern day society , the constant use of busy phones have brought us a point where it is almost unsurmountable for us to imagine our day-to-day life with forbidden it.Our society is oblivious to how some(prenominal) we depend on the use of mobile phones except we only get wind that we need it in all spheres of our lives . It plays an important role in our lives oddly around mass we love especially our family . As a form of communication , it has brought us c standr to our family in certain ways but yet it has also cause a disruption in family relationships. This taste pull up stakes elaborate more on the how a mobile phone has both positive as well as a negative impacts in the relationship of a family.This modern gadget has done a massive impact on our relationships, especially family life. It has facilitate communication and table service us keep in touch with our family even when not being physically together. In addition to that , it has allowed frequent and spontaneous communication amidst family members which causes an increase in peoples capacity to maintain emotional intimacy among themselves. Not only that , parents are able to know how their small fry is doing if theyre studying abroad. At least they would have a two-eyed violet of mind knowing that their child is safe and that their child is just a quick phone call away from them. They can also feel better knowing that their child can either cont act them or the authorities in cases of emergency.Read moreEssay About disallow Effects of Smartphones on YouthHowever , when mobile phones are used excessively ,it will limit the time a person interacts with their family members physically as they fly the coop to become oblivious of the surrounding especially people around them. This is due to being fixated on constantly checking for text messages , emails and chats as well as playing games and music. When these family interaction become limited , the family members tend to forget the importance of communicating with one some other causing them to lose personal contact and listening skills which is essential in building a strong relationship with one another. In addition , parents complain most their children not answering their mobile phones. This causes the parent to feel frustrated and will eventually lose trust towards their child.To sum up, it will increase distress and cause a steep decrease in family satisfaction. In r efinement , mobile phones have its own positive impact as a strong communication device which makes family interaction between one another easier especially when family members are far away from each other. But if we on the alert and slither into dependency on communicating with our family using a mobile phone , then in the future, people will lose their cleverness to have a conversation and how they interact with each family member. This will open up a Pandoras box , with time , it gets worse resulting in conflicts not resolved and non of the family members know much about each other. Since mobile phones have both positive and negative impacts we have to figure out ways of how mobile phones can enhance humanity and not place down it.

Psychotropic Medication Essay

A mind-expanding medication is a dose that can affect the mind, manner and emotions. It can be utilise to treat some(prenominal) mental disorders. In recent years, with the advancement of mental sciences, thither has been a sudden summation in handling of psychotropic medications for the interposition of several mental disorders. However, it is still not clearly understood whether these would be safe and efficient e genuinelywhere the tenacious run. Some of the psychotropic medications, which atomic number 18 increasingly being utilize, tardily implicate antidepressants, antianxiety medicates, antipsychotics, and antiepileptic drugs (Weller, 2007, Thompson, 2001 & Kohen, 2005). A study was conducted by Freeman et al (1998), to study the efficacy and safety of multi-drug therapy in the give-and-take of resistant (refractory) bipolar disorder. In the past, physicians and researchers tolerate faced a lot of unvoicedies in the treatment of bipolar disorders. The seve rity of the disease and the range of symptoms that can develop convert extensively from wizard undivided to another. The length of the illness, response to treatment, chances of recurrences, outcomes, etc, vary from one case to another and fronts on several factors.However, during the last half a century, the use of medications has existingly helped to improve the outcome of bipolar disorders. Several drugs have come into the picture in the treatment of bipolar disorders, which have been utilized during various periods. Some of the drugs include lithium, chloropromazine, carbamazepine, haloperidol, calcium-channel blockers, clozapine, risperidol, lamotrigine, gabapentin, olanzapine, etc. Although, a variety of drugs ar currently available for the treatment of bipolar disorder, it remains a real ch whollyenge to man term. The range of symptoms be so vast that it is often difficult to manage it with a ace drug. Hence, a confederacy of drugs has to be utilized for a short-t erm period.The author researched various drugs utilized in the treatment including lithium, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, valproate, verapamil, olanzapine, nimodipine, benzodiazepines, amlodipine, neuroleptics, gabapentin, clonazepam, clozapine, and risperidone. Studies conducted in patients consuming lithium and sodium valproate have demonstrated that the chances of recurrences were a good deal lesser. The chances of ominous make were alike slightly higher. But, weighing the disadvantages against the advantages demonstrated that valproate and lithium combination was efficient. On the other hand lithium utilized on with carbamazepine demonstrated that only in certain cases this combination was effective and safe.However, in comorbid disease of the brain, the combination was best avoided. Studies have shown that the valproate carbamazepine combination has a synergetic effect, but there are associated dangers of serious array make. Hence, it would be wise from preliminary tes ts itself to avoid this combination. To several purposes, the data currently available searchs to be inconsistent and there is an imperative need to conduct comprehensive drug trials. The physician should be able to coiffe the risk of developing unbecoming effect and accordingly modify the treatment.The main issue of combination therapy is that there are greater chances of damage occurring imputable to associated drug interaction and individual actions of the drug. However, as the drugs may have a synergistic effect, the capablenessity for huge mensuration of benefits too exist. other adverse issue that exists with combination therapy is the potential for not complying with the treatment plan. The patient may stop taking the drugs due to the several font cause (Freeman et al, 1998). Studies have demonstrated that in spitefulness of a dearth of long studies (to determine the safety and efficacy of the drug), more drugs are being utilized in children. This is the most sensitive age group, and every negative reaction can have a life-long effect. currently the drugs utilized in children have been only assessed for their short-term and medium-term effect. many another(prenominal) drugs, which depend to be safe, are seldom effective for long-periods of time. However, many drugs that do seem effective may not in fact be safe.In a study conducted by Hussain on children suffering from ADHD, he prepare that about 25 % of the patients administered olanzapine and 30 % administered risperidone stopped the drug due to several reasons. The main reasons for stopping the drug included poor response during the sign stages of drug therapy and the development of several case cause ( much(prenominal) as sedation, confusion, agitation, nausea, vomiting, etc). later on a period of three months, there was an improvement in the symptoms and signs of ADHD.Another issues, which also need to be con grimacered in adolescents, are the issue of drug submission. Chi ldren are more likely not to comply with treatment compared to adults. Children may not comply with the doses when the side effects associated with the drug are high. Many children would not be consuming the drug as they feel that it would not be beneficial in any way. However, scientists do feel that with the coming of advanced studying techniques and the development of safer drug profiles, the chances of developing side effects have significantly dropped in children (Weller, 2007). During the breast-feeding period, it is classic for the physician to advert that any drug consumed by the breed would not only have an adverse effect on her, but also on the baby. This is because the drug or its metabolite may be expressed in the breast milk. Previously, women in urgent need of psychotropic medications were advised to avoid breastfeeding the child. However, nowadays, the physicians would have to give a judgment call depending on the nature of the drug consumed and the risk of potent ial side effects.The chances of ill effects developing in the child depend on the quantity of drug expressed in the breast milk. Children having liver-colored function defects or those born prematurely are at a greater risk of developing side effects. Besides, the heart and the kidney function also play an important role. During the nursing period, the physician should be able to determine the chances of developing risk, and accordingly advise the mother. It is very important to study the extent of the mental health disorder, the support from the family members, womens chances of complying and adhering to the treatment, etc.It is important to note that during the nursing period, a healthy mother would be in a better situation to take foreboding of the baby, than an ill mother. It is also important to note that any drug, which has a beneficial effect on the body, would also be having a side effect. Thus it is found that a single drug utilized in measly doses would be having minimal amount of side effects compared to other drugs. However, the psychiatrist may want to postulate a combination of two or more drug in order to improve the benefits.In such cases, the risk for side effects would be high, especially in the baby. The psychiatrist should work in skinny coordination with the mother, family members and the pediatrician In all cases, the chances of benefits should outweigh that of the risks from occurring. In cases, the health of the mother is at stake, and she requires a combination of drugs, it would be advisable to stop breastfeeding and harvest-festival to this healthy practice only when the drug therapy is completely stopped (Kohen, 2005).Recently, newer antidepressants drugs are being available in the market. These antidepressants have fewer side effects, are more effective and act very fast. Although, the chances of developing squirt side effects were small in number, the chances of developing the more serious ones occurred on fewer occasions. H owever, the recent drug trials have been unable to determine the long-term side effects. In this regard, more number of drug trials need to be conducted. Many researchers have suggested that as chances of serious side effects are also present, it would be advisable to follow certain precautions.These include nearly monitoring the drug therapy, administering for short periods of time, using other treatment measures such as psychotherapeutics as first line, starting from a low dosage and slowly increasing it depending on the patients response, layover of alcohol and other drugs, etc. Certain warning signs need to be looked into to determine the chances of side effects from developing. Studies have shown that usually minor side effects occur more frequently than the major ones.Studies conducted through clinical trials have demonstrated that the chances of side effects were particularly higher in those who consumed the drug than the placebo. However, it would also be interesting to n ote that patients receiving the placebo took longer time to recover from the disease than those who received the drug. If a drug has only minor side effects are well tolerated in the body, then it should be preferred to one that causes major side effects. Psychiatrists prefer to use psychotropic medications for short period of time, in order to avoid the chances of side effects from developing (Jureidini et al, 2005).Another approach that also seems to be beneficial includes have the drug with other drugs in order to decrease the dosage. In all cases, the patients treatment with drug therapy needs to be tight monitored in order to determine the chances of side effects and benefits from developing. As the effects of several drugs on the developing baby are not known, its use should be restricted during pregnancy and lactation. Further research needs to be conducted in this regard (Jureidini et al, 2005, Kohen, 2005, Gazley, 2004 & Freeman, 1998).Psychotropic medications have the po tential of causing side effects and also helping to improve the outcome of the condition. The risk of side effects may be difficult to manage and to predict. However, if certain measures are followed, they could be kept to a minimal. Some of the measures that are required include-Conducting detailed drug trials to asses the potential side-effects and benefitsEnsuring that the drug trials are conducted for determining the long term effectsMonitoring the drug administration of the patient reservation a thorough risk assessment (weighting the risks and the benefits) in each and very case.Making sure that the factors, which would result in the development of side effects, are discussed and addressed appropriately.Taking care whilst administering drugs to pregnant women and nursing mothers.Taking care whilst administering drugs to sensitive groups such as children, elders, etc.Taking care whilst administering combination drugs (as they could have a synergistic effect)Seeking patients com pliance and adherence to the drug therapy.Modifying the other factors that alter the course of the disease.To ensure that the drug are administered in low doses for short period of time.Using psychotherapy as an adjuvant.ReferencesFreeman, M. P. & Stoll, A. L. (1998). Mood Stabilizer Combinations A Review of Safety and Efficacy. Am J Psych, 155, 12-21. http//, J. (2004). attempt Email Answer 7 Psychotropic Drugs. What are the side effects? Retrieved on December 12, 2007, from Ask the internet Therapist Web localise http//, J. N., Doecke, C. J., Mansfield, P. R. (2004). Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents. BMJ, 328, 879-883.http//, D. (2005). Psychotropic medication and breast-feeding. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 371-379. http// 5/371.pdfThompson, L. L. (2001). Neuropsychological Testing. In. Jacobson (Ed), Psychiatric Secrets, Philadelphia Hanley & Belfus.Weller, E. B. (2007). Issues in Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Medscape. http//

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Online Exhibition Essay: A More Perfect Union

At the height of the internment of the Nipponese Americans during World war II, the number of individuals relocated and housed at the internment camps reached a staggering 120,000 individuals.Spread over 10 camps nationwide, that were defined by remoteness and remove from the general social organisation of American society, these people many of which were born American citizens lived their lives under rent and key simply because of their cultural ancestry.Not only men, precisely women, children, and the elderly were categorise as enemy aliens following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Using subject field security system as justification, the U.S. government displaced and imprisoned these Nipponese Americans for 2 years, victorious non only their freedom but their assets as well.Given the information contained in the Smithsonians give awayion, A More Perfect Union, the justification of national security was faulty and played off prejudice sort of than common sense. The Ni pponese migration to Hawaii and the U.S. mainland began in 1861 and continued through to 1940. During this time over 275,000 individuals immigrated. umteen of the introductory generation Japanese who came to the U.S. worked on sugar cane fields in Hawaii and on fruit and veget adapted farms in California. There they open up communities and were able to surround themselves with cultural familiarity but as their population grew, pettishness against them as well as began to grow.Within a couple years of their first arrival, the Hawaii legislator passed laws restricting the immigration of Japanese. By 1907, the U.S. had restricted the travel of Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland. The read nones that by 1940, forty percent of the population of Hawaii owed at least part of their ancestry to Japanese.In California, the Japanese Americans fought similar odds as their persistency and success huffye them easy targets of racially fueled jealousy.The racism against them, how of all t ime, was not limited to the unsuccessful farmer down the road but quite reached into every branch of government. Unable to own land or decease citizens, many Japanese placed their properties in the name of their children who had been born in the U.S. and were therefore citizens.The Supreme Court itself, played on the side of the oppressor, view against Japanese immigrants and upholding racist laws and restrictions.Anti-Japanese propaganda was also common place in the years leading up to Pearl Harbor, including bubble gum cards interchange to children and political cartoons, editorials and speeches. Once the Japanese American population established itself as a living and growing community in the United States, the abomination became more concentrated.With the drop of the bomb on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Japanese Americans fate was sealed. Americans had followed the Japanese Armys fight down of Hitler and Mussolini, they were aw atomic number 18 of the army effect. W hat Americans were not prepared for was for that military power to reach across the Pacific and tap them on the shoulder.The exhibit notes that in the panic that ensued along the West Coast, along with the prejudices already in place and made policy, the Japanese Americans became an easy target for political kowtowing and discharge the prejudices which had until then only bubbled. With President Franklin D. Roosevelts issuance of executive identify 9066, the situation exploded into full blown segregation.What is interesting to note, is that though the U.S. was also in a war against Germany and Italy, Italian American and German Americans were not targeted under E.O. 9066, While German or Italian enemies were often viewed as misguided victims of despotic leaders, Japanese people were referred to as yellow vermin, mad dogs, and monkey men. Racist wartime propaganda further exacerbated fears of invasion and prejudice against people of Japanese decent.Much of the political and militar y justification for the removal of Japanese Americans was blatantly fueled by individual racism and not sound strategy. illustration from the West Coast, who had their own individual prejudices against their own Japanese American communities were more or less of the strongest supporters of the measure.The initial roll was for the military to remove persons from their jurisdiction who were seen to be threats to national security but the removal wasnt limited to individuals near line of products bases or the coast but stretched far across the country, uprooting them from their homes and leaving them to dispense only what they could carry. Disobeying the order was not an option nor was it considered correct.Japanese American, Morgan Yamanaka, in recalling her own survive explains that it wasnt in their upbringing to disobey the authority of the federal government, I think one has to appreciate what our parents, the immigrant parents taught us Always respect order coming from the people above you. Respect your teachers, respect the government, respect the law.Be obedient, be reserved, be a good Japanese according to good Japanese traditions. Though I doubt it was willing, there was little protest on the part of the Japanese Americans. However, perhaps this loyalty and obedience to the U.S. government patronage the criminal nature of E.O. 9066, was also a factor in the excerption of spirit and their reemergence back into American society following the camps.The camp bugger off though far less extreme, despite the designation of internment rather than the Nazi concentration camps, did not differ so much from the Jews experiences in Germany during the comparable time.Fenced in by barbed wire and soldiers with guns, their were housed in lacking(p) barracks and worked for minimal wages to help support the camp and war effort. Many used their opportunities at work as ways to continue their lives tabudoor(a) the context of the camp, while remaining imprisoned .The things which occupied their time such as artwork and making of furniture, the expression of their freedom through imagination are what I would most recommend to someone viewing the exhibit. The works, though deeply disturbing in the recurrence of the fences and general feeling of entrapment present in some, shows a freedom that no imprisonment can stifle.While the body is imprisoned, the learning ability continues to go forth into the world even if it is only a recoloring of the same landscape, dusty and isolated. To maintain artistic expression under such custody is a true show of the strength needed to survive nice an unknowing enemy.By 1943, the U.S. government was asking all residents of the camp to fill out a drumheadnaire to determine their loyalty to the U.S. Some, feeling tricked and manipulated by the maneuver and the questions on the forms, chose to reply no to certain questions, such as Will you rely unqualified dedication to the United States and forswear any f orm of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, to any other foreign government, power or organization?The exhibit explains that some of the interned Japanese Americans saw the question as a double edged sword. If they were to answer yes, than they would be implying that they had ever been disloyal to the U.S. government and to answer no was to seal their fate. The ones who were deemed loyal were able to start on the road back to a normal life, the others were separate further.Among these were children and natural born U.S. citizens. At the end of the war, over 4,000 Japanese Americans (all but 100 under the age of 20) were repatriated to Japan.

Comparing Freedom of Expression in the Statutory Law and the Sharia Law Essay

Getting in touch with media truth during the first base semester of my Masters gave me a sense of the importance of law in prevalent beca employment it consists of make outs and articles which organise intimately issues in the valet de chambres flavour in a way that protects ethics and goods. Regardless of the hypocrisy and double-standards of the countries which raise extravagantly the slogan of Human Rights, I homogeneousd the Human Rights Conventions that were laid mint by these countries. Therefore, I decided to research some points in these conventions that ar related to my study in order to nurture my knowledge in this gr feed in field of the human sciences.Then, I thought deliberately roughly the benefit of exerting overmuch effort to get such knowledge since it is existed, well-explained and well-organised, in handy books. but after looking by historical and spectral study as far back as some centuries ago, I found that my own culture, Islam, had plenty of la w victual that helped its sight non completely to protect their ethics and morals, but also to spread them on the whole everywhere the world. Through deliberate and objective study, I found that more of the social reformers, whose thoughts led to the emergence of the ripe criteria of human advanceds, were originally affect by the roots of the Islamic ulture. I also found a lot of those old and even innovative reformers who praised the old provisions of the shariah law lawfulness and they also praised the prosperity which was an outcome of go foring it. The Western writer Patricia cr unrivaled (2005 p. 218-219) said referring to how those old provisions of law were true bases of a moral society Medieval Islamics did not write utopias in the sense of ideational travel accounts or other descriptions of ideal societies which do not exist, they were not springtimen to come everywhereking ideals out nerve their own civilisation at all.But they did place a golden age ri ght at the graduation of their own history, and their numerous accounts of this age add up to a flesh out utopia of great emotive power It was a time when the Moslems had all the virtues of tribesmen and no(prenominal) of their vices, for thanks to Islam there was no feuding, no factionalism, and no disorder, just austerity, solidarity, and conglomeration devotion to the truth. Therefore, I decided to look for the provisions of that old law which atomic number 18 related to my study and comp ar them with their counterparts in the modern human rights conventions. In order to limit my research, I decided to reconcile the articles related to my study, media law, in the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) of the British legality to represent the leaders international human rights conventions. Part unmatched Preface Main bloodline In this dissertation I am going to explain how some(prenominal) the HRA and the sharia fair play deal with the conceit of immunity of flavor.As prospi cient as such argument is new and uncommon because of the lack of references that examine it, which resulted in an ambiguous perception in the minds of pile towards the shariah rightfulness and its sources, there must be a kind of primary comment of the shariah Law, its sources and how the sharia law scholars (Sharia Jurists) deal with these sources to regulate law items. Sharia Law This expression is going to be referred to as a theological-historical concept since the Sharia was revealed finished a prophet, this makes it a theological subject depend, and it is 15 centuries old, this gives it a historical background.Sharia (sari? ah) is all religious rituals that Allah (SWT) has claver on Muslims, via his seer Mohammad (PBUH) regarding beliefs, rules and day-to-day lifetime among Muslims themselves, and surrounded by Muslims and non-Muslims. It is designed to govern the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims, whether in spite of appearance or outside the territory of I slam. Mahmoud Kamali says that Sharia is the Islamic law as contained in the divine guidance of the Quran and the hadith. Yet, the expression Sharia Law is modern if compargond with the word Fiqh, which historically utilize to mean the awareness of Islamic rules from its sources by true inference. Kamali defined the word Fiqh Islamic law as original by Muslim Jurists. The term is often utilise synonymously with Sharia. Therefore, deal other contemporary researchers of similar topics, I am going to use the expression Sharia Law to mean the old word Fiqh. Sources of the Sharia LawThere is no difference between any(prenominal) of the Muslim scholars that the main sources of all information, not only close the details of the life of mankind, but also about the details of the whole universe are the Holy Quran, then, the Holy Sunnah. In addition, it is a matter of a habitual belief among Muslims and many of non-Muslims that the Holy Quran in the hands of wad is the real book r evealed by Allah (SWT) to his Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) fourteen centuries ago. The same is the 100% authenticity of certain books of Hadith, i. e. Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim.These references are not considered comprehensive works however, I rule that they could draw raw guidelines for me in my research in two ways * They give me hints about how this issue is being taken by researchers who are not specialists in Sharia studies, but they are lawyers or journalists like me. * They draw raw guidelines of the comparative methodology of research between articles of the Sharia Law and those of the statutory law.Throughout this dissertation, I am going to take articles of the British Media Law and compare them with the related provisions of the Sharia Law, talent enough instances in order to be able to make decipherable conclusions about the main question of this dissertation which is (The question of the dissertation) Can the modern Islamic movements, who are apparently going to rule the Arab countries after the Arab Spring, implement the Sharia Law and achieve the absolute justice which they raise as a slogan for their innovations and electoral campaigns?Or would they worsen the already change state postal service of media law? Of course, regarding the other part of this dissertation, which is the statutory law, libraries are extensive of texts of law articles starting from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789, passing with the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ending with daily huge volumes of books, journals and articles studying new amendments and proposing new laws regarding recent details of the life of people in general and the work of media specifically. TerminologyIn order to pick up a good understanding for the real meaning and connotation of the Sharia Law concepts and cases, they have to be denoted by their names. Therefore, it is necessary here to have a list of the original names of the Sharia concep ts and their definitions. The Holy Quran defined previously. Surah one complete chapter from the Holy Quran. Sowar the plural of Surah. Sowar are different in length. few are 1/3 a page and others exceed 40 pages. Aya one verse from the Holy Quran. Ayat a plural of aya. The Holy Sunnah defined previously.Hadith a verified saying for the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). Ahadith a plural of Hadith. Tafseer the interpretation of the Holy Quran and the Holy Sunnah by maestro credible Muslim scholars. Fatwa a certain judgement on a certain case by a Sahaba, Tabeeen or confident Muslim scholars in a certain time or place. Plural is Fatawa. Ibada the act of worshiping Allah (SWT) whether by heart or body. Any act of heart or body needs to start with intention of solely worship for Allah in order to be a true Ibada. Dawah the flow of activities Muslims do in illuminating the t apieceings of Islam.Dhimmi the name of a non-Muslim citizen in the Islamic State. Ahludhimmah or Dhimmiyeen plural of Dhi mmi. Jezyah the name of the religious tax for non-Muslims in the Islamic State. It is uniform to the religious tax taken from Muslims, but Jezyah is a lesser keep down of money that has many exceptions. Part Two The Situation of Freedom of tone Historical Background It is very important, beforehand starting writing about the situation of granting immunity of expression in the statutory and the Sharia Law, to explore the general historical climates which preceded the emergence of both laws.That will give a kind of understanding of how much the improvements on the situation of unaffectionatedom of expression both laws have achieved. * A Glimpse on Freedom of demeanor in the West before the Renaissance The period which preceded what is known in Europe as the Renaissance was full of conflicts among the different castes of the European communities in general. That conflict took several forms. A prime one was the conflict between the perform and scientists and that between auth ority and people.Howard Turner describes a side of such conflicts The Middle Ages in Europe had long been dominated by an interminable conflict between Church article of faith and a kind of humanitarian and individual quest for intellectual liberation. Church and authority apply to be allies and each institution worked for the protection of the other at the depreciate of peoples lives. They used to impose restriction on license of expression and there used to be no wish for peoples privacy. There was also a kind of blackout on external knowledge, fearing that it might undermine their power or alliance.The Thirteenth coulomb was an age in which kings and barons reacted to an insult by lopping off the offending tongue- or head The crime of s whoremongerdalum magnatum expressly protected the great men of the terra firma from any statements that might arouse the people against them. In France, for example, the king used to say I am the state and gave no space for people to ha ve control in running their own or surreptitious life. The Church used to control science. Therefore, knowledge it saw as right, used to be spread, and that it saw as wrong, used to be damaged.A occlusion was imposed on scientists and thinkers. In 1614, Galileo was accused of unorthodoxyby the Church for his scientific theories. Eighteen years later, in 1632, he was sentenced to life fetter which was reduced to permanent house arrest after he had been have to withdraw his theories before the public by the Church. That time was the worst for womens license. Women were inferior to men, troubled with Eves sin. They were subject to the authority of their fathers or their husbands. Violence in marriage did occur and was even encouraged. The dark life of that age pushed people to seek a kind of salvation through knowledge, especially, after the appearance of new thinkers affected by the Muslims civilisation. According to Turner, the Christian West inherited the scientific legacy fr om Islam. Thanks to increasing cultural traffic with Muslim lands via the busy Spanish and Sicilian gateways, the thriving routes of Mediterranean and overland commerce, and the contacts left(a) over from the Crusades. People sought to reinforce the principles of emancipation and justice, which was clear in the slogan of the French revolution which was liberty, equality and fraternity. The revolution in real license of expression has been from the Renaissance until today. However, there are still some issues which emerge from time to time that necessitate amendments of the active laws or constituting new ones. * Freedom of aspect in Arabia before the Sharia Law In Arabia, there used to be kind of freedom of expression, but there was no justice.For example, men used to sit with each other and think about issues related to their tribes. But that right to give an idea or express an opinion was only for masters. Societies there used to consist of three castes masters, subjects or alliances and slaves. In addition, that right among the masters was only for men. Women used to be curb and were not allowed to share opinions either in public affairs or even in family affairs. Women were used in the same way as goods. There used to be a motley of religions. Arabia included pagans, Jews and Christians.But the most common was paganism. Surely, that kind of diversity hints at a kind of freedom of religion, but the opposite was the norm. Paganism, be in worshiping idols, was the religion of the mainstream Arabs in Arabia and they used to keep an eye on those who converted to other religions. If they were young, they used to be fought if they were old, they used to be left free since they could not affect others. Of course, chiefs and masters of tribes used to be gifted with that kind of life because it helped them keep strong control over their subjects.However, suppressed castes needed any kind of powerful justice to liberate them from the bondage of the diffe rent forms of slavery. From amongst that darkness, the message of the Sharia was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) to spread the justice and freedom among people. It is widely known among historians that a reasonable number of the people who articulation the Dawah at the early stages were from the ordinary people or alliances and slaves. virtually of the masters asked the Prophet (PBUH) to dismiss them from around him if he wanted them, the masters, to join the Dawah.Of course, ordinary people always lead reforms. A gathering of Muslim emigrants fled the persecution of their relatives in Mecca to Abyssinia and there was a short dialogue in the court of Abyssinias king, who was a true Christian. Their representative set forth the situation of Arabs before the Sharia and what the Sharia came with O king We were plunged in the deepness of ignorance and barbarism we adored idols we lived in unchastity we ate dead animals, and we spoke abomination. We treat every feeling of humanity, and the duties of hospitality and neighbourhood. We knew no law but that of the strong.At that time, divinity raised from among us a man of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty and worth we were aware, and he called us to the Unity of God and taught us not to beau anything with Him. He forbade us to worship idols and enjoined us to speak the truth, to be nigh to our trusts, to be merciful, and to regard the rights of neighbours. He forbade us to speak ill of women and to eat the substance of orphans. He ordered us to flee from vices, to abstain from evil, to tin prayers, to render alms, and to observe the fast. Constituted Rights to Freedom of Expression * Freedom of Expression in British Media LawAs I have mentioned from the beginning, I am going to take the British law as an model to represent the statutory law in this research. Therefore I see that I have to propose an overall look at the British law and to see the situation of freedom of expression through it. Bri tish Law Unlike other countries, Britain does not have a compose constitution. Referring to Britain, Tom Baistow says This country is the only one in the EEC without a written constitution and the only one without the press laws that form one of the most important guarantees of freedom of expression. However, it has a good record regarding the respect of freedom of expression. It got this reputation throughout historical fights of the British nation to achieve freedom and meet democracy. And as an ideal example of the fight to go through this situation, journalism in Britain went through a brave battle against native restrictions on publishing in the 19th century and could extract the right to comment and publish. Freedom of expression became one of the most respected freedoms as a kind of a social norm among the British people.It is believed in Britain that free saving is a significant pillar of a free democracy. The Royal Commission on the Press in 1977 defined freedom of e xpression as that degree of freedom from restraint which is essential to modify proprietors, editors and journalists to advance the public interest by publishing the facts and opinions without which a pop electorate cannot make responsible judgement. This definition shows how the British believe in the bouncy role that freedom of expression plays in educating the public to be able to take right findings in elections.It means that it is the main guarantor of a free democracy which is the main principle of a free State. Therefore, Solaiman Saleh described the situation of freedom of expression in Britain, despite the lack of a written constitution, saying The principle of a free press is reenforce in the collective conscience of the British. That forms a better protection which outweighs any written constitution. Saleh continued explaining that it became a part of the British understanding of freedom of speech that the government does not have the right to interfere in the wor kflow of mass media.It cannot issue warrants, for example, to close any news platform, have pre-publishing restrictions/instructions or suggest amendments in the administrative systems or column policy. This is how James Curran portrayed the British press after the Second gentleman War The press became fully independent of political parties and hence government. The independency of the press gave it a great deal of space for free speech as well as unlimited power against governments.This was clear when the crush wartime leader, British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, demanded an immediate liquidation of the Daily Mirror over its coverage of the conduct of war. That decision was followed by rough debates in the nursing home of Commons and huge popular protests in Trafalgar Square and capital of the United Kingdoms Central Hall that pushed Churchills government to withdraw the decision against the Daily Mirror and, even, lift a ban previously imposed on the Daily Worker. Mass media regulation is only the role of the sevens and Judiciary.In reply to the argument that the parliamentarian majority which forms the government may adopt any law suggested by it, Saleh argues that people who believe in the concept of freedom of expression will protest against the parliament and oblige it to snatch the new law or to dissolve. The incident of the Daily Mirror mentioned supra is a very clear example of that. The main pressure was represented by organised protests in Trafalgar Square and Londons Central Hall.In addition, Hanna and Banks say in McNaes Essential Law for Journalists Section 19 of the Human Rights Act created a requirement that a Minister introducing a Bill into Parliament must declare that its provisions are compatible with the European Convention, including thereby a commitment to freedom of expression. Despite all the facts mentioned about the battles towards the freedom of expression in the position society, a sufficient protection for that fre edom, which keeps up with the public-interest journalism, from attacks for discomfiting the government or the workbench or the wealthy private litigants was not completely guaranteed.It is guaranteed by the toleration of international treaties, in which English writers and lawyers took a big part in constituting them, into the British law. Since then, clear articles of these treaties have become legal codes in the British law that guarantee a better freedom of expression. Throughout these facts, I can come to a conclusion that freedom of expression in Britain has certain principles that are clear. The main three principles could be summed up as following 1. Government has no power against mass media.Robertson and Nicol explain how a government official does not have any privilege over the public in this regard. They say that if any official wanted to step down a news story, he has to go to the court the same as the public do. It means that government cannot control or suppress th e percentage of any single person directed to the public via any medium. It is believed that this is a sign of a free democratic State, but not in an arbitrary sense. Therefore, mass media have to be credible, and offenders should not escape punishment. lav Whale quoted Sir William Blackstone, the eighteenth-century jurist, saying The liberty of the press is indeed essential to the temper of a free State but this consists in laying no previous restraints upon publication, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter when published. 2. Mass media are owned by the private sector and, therefore, it represents citizens before the government. However, citizens are stronger than the government in the democratic regimes it means that mass media can publish any kind of opposite opinions without fearing suppression or subjection of the government. 3.Mass media turn to the public to face censorship. Robertson and Nicol say The best antidote to censorship is publicity. When the g overnment wishes to practice a kind of censorship, journalists can send that practice and the government does not have any power to punish them. The incident of the Daily Mirror mentioned above is a clear example on the three points mentioned. It shows how mass media are stronger than governments, how mass media speak on behalf of the public and how the public exerted pressure through protests that pushed the government to retreat from the closure warrant against the newspaper. Freedom of Expression in the Sharia Law The most prominent symptomatic of the Sharia Law is that it is a religious law. It means that it has more emphasis, in all branches, on religious and moral determine than other laws. Mohmmad Kamali says This can, perhaps, be clearly seen in reference to the Sharia rules pertaining to blasphemy, heresy and disbelief, where the dominant concern is to defend the dogma and belief-structure of Islam. Muslim scholars and thinkers believe that this characteristic of the Sh aria Law gives it a spiritual power, which is effective to keep perceptual constancy of societies.Based on his understanding of the Islamic beliefs and to confirm that defending the dogma and belief-structure of Islam achieves social stability, 20th century Muslim thinker and reformer Sayyed Qutb, who see the Holy Quran, says Social, economic and religious organisation goes side by side with a true ethical code and dogmatic belief in a complete, comprehensive, balanced and precise way. Regarding freedom of expression and to show how much positive effect religion has on it, the Western writer, Patricia Crone, shed airy on the way Muslim thinkers understand the relationship between freedom and religion.Patricia Crone reported Al-Ghazali, a famous medieval Muslim philosopher and reformer, explaining freedom in the Sharia as no humans had the right to impose obligations on other humans, whether they were rulers, masters, fathers or husbands, or for that matter prophets only God coul d do so. Of course, Al-Ghazalis understanding of that concept of freedom was based on the Holy Quran and the Holy Sunnah. Allah (SWT) asked his Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in the Holy Quran, to tell people that he is a human like them.