Saturday, August 31, 2019
The mark an employee receives in his/her evaluation plays a very important role in his/her chances of promotion. Banglalink uses the Ã¢â¬Å"Performance ReviewÃ¢â¬ form which is generally termed as Ã¢â¬Å"Adjective ChecklistÃ¢â¬ The Performance Review forms are sent to all the people who act as supervisors of a certain number of employees. The supervisors are instructed to evaluate their subordinates They are specifically instructed to evaluate the Ã¢â¬Å"job performanceÃ¢â¬ of the employee; and not to evaluate the employee himself or herself as a person. The supervisor fills out the form himself During his evaluation, he may consult with the employee if the supervisor has any remarks; he puts them on the form also. After all these are completed, he assigns marks on the rating. The marks are specified on the form. After the supervisor completes his evaluation, his section head reviews the form If he has other thoughts about the person evaluated, he then consults both the supervisor and the subordinate, whose performance was evaluated, and then clarifies the matter. He then gives his own remarks. Then the form is sent to the Departmental Head, who gives the final acknowledgement when he assesses that everything is in order. Thus all the filled out forms are gathered and sent to the Banglalink head-office, where these forms are sorted and arranged Then the top management reviews these forms. They evaluate the markings received. Then they can make a certain judgments on the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and performance The present position of the employee and his current salary along with the marks and recommendations he received are combined to make a matrix With this matrix, the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s increment is calculated. [pic] Appraisal Feedback After the evaluation has been done, the top management makes their decisions nd forms future plans Where the evaluation results are not satisfactory, the top management asks for more information After getting the information, they sit with the Departmental Head of the employee under scrutiny and then they proceed to assess the situation. Later they discuss the situation with the rater and the employee he rated and then they make their decision. When the evaluation results are positive and the top management has made their decisions about the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s increments or promotion, the employees are given the information in an informal manner. Thus, they are assured of the assessment that has been made of them. In this way they are kept motivated. 3. Research Methodology Type of Research The project falls in the category of exploratory and descriptive research, i. e, a research designed to evaluate the Performance Appraisal of Banglalink. This applies to the research part. Prior to that, the organizational part is helpful for the clear understanding of the existing position of Banglalink and also serves the purpose of the exploratory. Besides, a limited scale of causal research has been also included to examine the cause and effect relationship among variables. Basic Research Method The basic research method in this theoretical Knowledge, field survey and practical orientation. In that the annual report and websites were the major source of secondary data. Besides, the discussion with the concerned managers/employees (Primary data) yielded the additional information to fill up the gaps and helped in clear understanding. Sources and Method of data collection To carry out the research study, data has been collected both from primary and secondary sources Primary Data Primary data have been collected as follows Structured Questionnaire Keeping the problem statement in view, a number of questions in the form of checklist had been formulated. The checklist had been the main tool for relevant question to the primary data sources to formulated the operational definition of the problem statement and precisely find out the area of study. Questionnaire were developed incorporating mixed type of questions. One type of questionnaire for the managers at Banglalink and the other type is for employees. Some questions were common for all while some questions were exclusive for either group. Questionnaires were designed in such a way so that all-important elements of the performance appraisal system can be covered by it. After questionnaire formulation, an exhaustive and deliberate discussion was conducted and necessary adjustments were made. Pretest for screening of the questionnaire has been carried out. After pretest, the final questionnaire has been prepared.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The importance of this letter is to familiarize our Supermarket, XYZ Supermarket Ltd, which has been active in the investment since 1990. Here at XYZ, we have introduced a State of the Art Bakery and new methods of branding farm products. In our Bakery, we are we are manufacturing new range of products like breads, new designs of cakes that are customized to meet the customers needs, Dairy products and other meat products. More so, we believe that great businesses are not born, they are made, and this is why we have made XYZ as one of the best customer friendly venture that have received great reputation and connections to many customers needs and other organizations. We are happy to let you know we have established close relationship with leading clients distributed all across the cities and the neighboring countries. Since beginning, we have successfully provided customers with cost effective goods in our business that operates around the clock. XYZ also, offers other services like events planning and decorations such as wedding setups/parties , transport services to customers that purchases bulky goods while delivering these goods to any customers location at little fee. We are guaranteed that our investment strategies remain the leading in these business environments. Part of this letter, you will find enclosed information pamphlets, documents and brochures about us. Our services are offered after thorough considerations of our clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs by charging normal fee. We are fully aware that you are interested in the same options of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goods and services, and you must need time to think about. Through our great pleasure, we have stocked new range of products that we believe might best suit your needs. After meticulous field research and surveys, we came up with new products directly from new business people from the agricultural market, whereby, other products are manufactured or blend within our business venture. As we are all aware, the Government has provided farms supplies, loan and other incentives to our farmers, and, therefore, agricultural production and improved greatly while new farm produce is getting to our existing markets. More so, new entrepreneurs are offering new products that we are stocking and, therefore, these products will be essential for you. The new ranges of farm produce are produced in modern ways of farming especially the incorporation of technology in the farms. They are, therefore, of higher quality than the average ones already in other shelves. The new products are cost effective, fast moving goods that everyone is after, well packaged and more so, beneficial to our health especially in preventing and curing of common diseases. For instance, we are blending and manufacturing new range of breads from a wide variety of balanced protein, vitamin and vital fatsÃ¢â¬â¢ collected from the new farm produce. These breads are so enriched Ã¢â¬Å"you might be tempted to skip some mealsÃ¢â¬ for their balanced and satisfying characteristics. Their packaging is so modern and attractive that everyone will be interested in looking or tasting. Brochures furnishing the details of each product have been enclosed with this letter. Being our esteemed customer, we would like to offer you a range of free products in our shelves befo re the current stock runs out. We are working with highly qualified staffs that assures every customer detail is handled and taken care of physically or through our business contacts 24/7. Please note that we are working with new top sales representative, Mr. George Brown, as a Business Manager and being a former sales staff from Amazon Ventures Ltd in Paris. Mr. George has 21 years of experience in sales and marketing and was formally working in other great business companies like Virginia Green Garden, one of the largest importer and manufacturer of farm Produce in Europe. He is a graduate from Oxford University and recently completed his management studies from Michigan University. Through the combined experiences and expertise within our staffs, we have been ranked one of the best business investments and that we have developed close ties with staffs (clients) from IBM. We sometimes ask ourselves, if IBM staffs are interested with the Farm Products in our shelves, who else canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy from us? We, therefore, introduce and welcome all of our esteemed customers including you to these new ranges of products. Finally, we acknowledge your time and effort in reading this letter and hopeful that you may share our good news to your close colleagues especially by showing them some of the attached business brochures accompanying this letter. Mr. George is available to ascertain the prior commitments and orders. Incase of any special arrangements or enquiries, our lines, are open and can also reach our Manager at 07-05-123456 anytime between 9 A.M to 8 P.M. Further contact details can be referenced from one of the brochures. We are grateful for your concern in our Business. Sincerely Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ References Communications and media. (1974). Sydney: London : Angus & Robertson. Source document
Thursday, August 29, 2019
IT Project Management 2 - Assignment Example He is supposed to chart out the nature and extent of efforts to achieve the project deliverables. A crucial role of the project manager would be to hire the project team. The nature of the project team can be a critical factor in the success or failure of the given project, since the team is small with specialist roles and the subject matter experts have thus been recruited (DiTullio, 2011, p. 13). Another crucial role for the project manager is to select an appropriate vendor for the project. The Project manager is supposed to personally take care of all the vendor interactions. A vendor agreement is to be developed by the project manager, so as to guide the project team as well as the vendor representatives towards achievement of project objectives (Lewin, 2001). Assistant Project Manager. The role of the assistant project manager shall be to act as a deputy to the project manager in all the aspects of his project related duties. In the presence of the project manager, he shall ass ist him in all his functions. In his absence he shall be required to fulfill the roles in the capacity of a project manager. HR Expert. The HR expert is supposed to play a very important role in that he is to chart out the set of HR guidelines to be adhered to while designing the HRIS software. He is also supposed to assist the project manager in carrying out the HR needs identification for the project. The timely inputs by the HR expert will pave the way for the research team to establish the survey goals for the HR and the project needs identification (Elbeik & Thomas, 1998). The HR expert shall advise the project manager on the scope and functional ability of the various aspects of the HRIS software to be developed insofar as it meets the HR needs of the organization. The HR expert shall guide the project team at various stages of the project as to the feasibility of the functionalities of the various modules of the project plan. The HR expert shall assist the project manager on the dry runs for the project. The HR expert will be responsible effective assistance to the project manager on the following two particularly important aspects of the project management; 1. The Expert Judgment on the project quality through cost-benefit analysis of the project activities. 2. The Training of the project team on the HRIS as well as the Training of the staff. The HR expert shall chalk out a Training deliverables plan particularly for the employees of the Organization. HR Assistant. The HR assistant shall assist the HR expert on all the aspects of the functions of the HR expert. In addition, the HR expert shall personally ensure that the judgments arrived at by the HR expert are properly implemented. The recommendations of the HR expert shall be communicated on a routine basis by the HR assistant.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Cash Flow Statement - Coursework Example When the business makes repayment of principal loan, the repayment is made from the net income or earnings. This transaction is not included in the cash flow because they are going toward settlement of business loan. Net income is prepared based on the general accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Under the accrual accounting principle, expenses are matched with revenues earned in that accounting period (Rich, 2010, p. 56). For instance, a business purchase and pays for merchandise in May, assuming that the merchandise remain in inventory until it is sold in November (end of the accounting period of the business). To this end, businessÃ¢â¬â¢ net operating cash flow decreases in May when the business pays for the merchandise. However, the net income figure decreases in November when the cost of goods sold is matched with the November sales. Question 2 The main difference between direct and indirect method of cash flow is on the presentation of net cash flow from operating activities. Operating cash flow under direct cash flow statement adds major operating cash receipts and subtracts major operating cash payments. The cash payments are subtracted cash receipt of the business to arrive at the net cash flow from operating activities. The two companies are consistent in using the indirect method of cash flow statement. In addition, EA GAMES and UBISOFT recorded an increase in the net operating cash flow activities due to increase in net income and proper management of working capital.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Analysis of Several Law Questions - Coursework Example This consideration applies to the accused, victims, or witnesses of a case. The identification of young persons in court is therefore restricted to police requests or court order requiring a youth to be identified by the media. b. Similarly, adult courts reorganize the need to restrict identification of young people in court. Like in youth court, the media is allowed to cover cases involving the youth if and only if the case is of national interest or if the media has received a court or police order requesting the coverage of the case. 3. According to the given information, the company does not have a valid case. Although the intended publication of the information might turn out to be disastrous to the company, there is no possibility of a courtÃ¢â¬â¢s injunction. Although this is a complicated case, the case can be handled easily with the right application of media laws. Firstly, the case is of public concern since the workers are members of the public. According to the constitution, the public has the right to information. A matter of public concern such as the cut of employment positions will be important news to the public. Based on this argument I will be able to raise a defense against my accusations. 4. a. The press complaint commissions will consider certain arguments in adjudicating claims of intrusion of privacy (Parkard, 2007). In the given scenario, the commission will consider arguments related to the security of the couple. 6. a. According to the copyright law, the newspaper has a case to answer for subsequent usage of the photographs without the photographerÃ¢â¬â¢s permission (JISC, 2006). This is because the newspaper had only been given the rights to publish the picturesÃ once.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Social And Economic Trends - Assignment Example Cultural self-awareness has multiple definitions that are coined from the words culture, self, and awareness. The National Center for Cultural Competence defines cultural awareness as the Ã¢â¬Å"cognizant, observant, and consciousÃ¢â¬ sensitivity to the differences and similarities that exist between different cultures. Lum supports this definition in his perspective that recognizes Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive and sensoryÃ¢â¬ knowledge of the relationship between self and culture. These perspectives integrate to the definition that cultural self-awareness is an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of own culture and the interaction of the culture and other cultures to influence aspects of life. Different definitions also exist for cultural intelligence. Ang and Dyne define the concept as the potential to operate and manage self in a multi-cultural set up (2008, p. 3). This is consistent with Bertagni, La Rosa, and SalvettiÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of the capacity to integrate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self in int erpersonal situations in which cultural contexts are influential (2010, p. 80). Cultural intelligence has three dimensions that develop its relationship with cultural self-awareness. The cultural self-awareness that defines knowledge of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and that of other cultures, therefore, is therefore important to the emotional dimension of cultural intelligence because it forms a basis for influencing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude than eventually determine ability to manage factors in a cultural context.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Medical or Surgical Ways of Caring and Treating Decubitus - Essay Example Treatment involves debridement and control of infections. Prevention, on the other hand, involves patient repositioning, eating a balanced diet and exercising. Medical/ Surgical Ways of Caring and Treating Decubitus As a healing strategy, lying down is used to rest different body parts in a patient. When the patient rests in such a position for a long time they run the risk of developing bedsores. This is as a result of the effects of unrelieved pressure on that part of the body. These bedsores are also referred to as ulcer decubitus and can be found on any body part especially on areas with bone and cartilage (Neizgoda et al., 2006). This condition, though life-threatening, is treatable if found early. Sores caused by pressure result from inadequate supply of blood to tissues or an injury that leads to blood accumulating in the tissues. When one stays in the same position for a long time, blood supply in the areas under pressure is reduced. This causes a mild ache which is indicativ e of the obstructed flow of blood. This implies that the tissues will not get nourishment from the blood resulting in their death. If pressure is not alleviated in this area, the skin breaks and opens up creating a sore and if untreated, it can become infected (Brem et al., 2004). This paper discusses decubitus, its cause, its stages of development, how to prevent its development and how to care and treat patients with this condition. Discussion Ulcer decubitus is caused by three types of forces on a tissue. These are pressure, shear force and friction. Pressure results from a bones force on a tissue which causes the tissue to compress. Over time, the supply of blood to such tissues is inadequate leading to ischemia and cell death if left untreated in people with low immunity. When the skin stays in one place for a long time, gravity pulls down the skeletal muscles and the deep fascia resulting in shear force. This force can cut blood vessels thus depriving the tissues of nutrients which can lead to their death. Friction, on the other hand, is the force that prevents sloughing of the skin which may cause excess shedding of the epidermal layers. The situation can be even worse in conditions of excess skin moisture, which causes the epithelial cell bonds to weaken resulting in epidermal sloughing. Some medical conditions e. g. diabetes, age, and nutrition among other factors contribute to sores development (Neizgoda et al., 2006). There are two theories that explain how sores develop. The first one, which is most accepted, claims that they begin around the skeleton and move outwards towards the skin. The second theory claims that deterioration begins with the skin and proceeds into the muscles (Wilkinson and Stone, 2008). Either way, there are four stages of sores development. First is the superficial stage where the topmost layer of the skin becomes hyperemic even when the pressure is relieved. The area may be painful with an unusual texture and higher or lower temperatures than normal. It is easy to identify in light-skinned people where the skin is reddened, then in dark-skinned people where the skin shows purple or blue shades (Brem et al., 2004). The second stage involves damages to the epidermis and the dermis creating a blister. In the third stage, damages extend to the subcutaneous layer which is hard to heal because it has a poor blood supply.Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
A on the burial and ceremonial traditions of egypt compared to the romans and how it influenced america today - Research Paper Example Study of their beliefs and practices show that there existed a communication or interaction between the cultures of these two different continents, but any solid proof is still lacking. Later on, as believed, it is the influence of Christianity and that of Pilgrim Fathers led to the development of significant differences in the beliefs and practices of American cultures. In the case of Egypt, there was significant influence from Roman and Greek cultures. Thus, as time passed, there arose considerable differences among the cultures. A look into historical evidence proves that the practices related to the dead vary among various civilizations. However, it seems that all the civilizations share certain degree of similarity too. To illustrate, the Romans, Egyptians, and the ancient American civilizations like Mayan and Inca held the belief that the dead deserve some sort of rituals and planning. In addition, history proves that in societies the practices and beliefs undergo changes as ti me passes, and as civilizations decline. This work intends to look into the burial practices that existed among the ancient Egyptians and Romans, and it analyses if they had any influence on the American cultures. ... Consequently, their treatment of the dead varied accordingly. Ancient Egyptians buried their wealthy in expensive tombs which were filled with artifacts and wall paintings depicting families during their everyday lives. However, one can see that as time progresses, the positive outlook of the Egyptians about the afterlife changes significantly; the afterlife began to be considered as a place of fear; filled with evil spirits. As a result, they began to bury their dead with Ã¢â¬ËThe Book of DeadÃ¢â¬â¢ that contained spells that help the dead navigate in the afterlife. According to Davies (29), it is wrong to use the term Ã¢â¬ËresurrectionÃ¢â¬â¢ when one talks about the Egyptian belief because the Egyptians believed in the four stages of life starting from birth, life, death, and rebirth where death is an opportunity for fulfillment, not a matter of negation. Consequently, for them, death rituals were meant to ensure easy transcending of the dead to afterlife. In fact, the beli efs of the Egyptians regarding death and after life were based on the cult of Isis that had its birth around fourth millennium BCE. According to the belief, death is followed by a long journey through a number of tests and trials. The ones who pass the tests are sure to enjoy eternal life. In fact, the Egyptians were optimists about afterlife. Now, a look into the Roman burial customs proves that though they shared certain similarities in burial practices, their basic ideology was entirely different from that of Egyptians in the beginning. The first point of difference is the fact that while Egyptians believed in an exquisite afterlife, there was no such doctrine among Romans that taught there is an afterlife for which the present body is to be preserved. So, for them, the dead
Friday, August 23, 2019
Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent in the Workplace - Essay Example Different participants at these establishments have different views and beliefs on what is ethical and what is not ethical. An important concept to be derived from the study of ethics is that its applications in the different fields are interrelated and one application can be used to explain the other in a different field (Hardwig, 2010, p.1). Nevertheless, a lesson learned from ethical issues arising in business could be used to solve analogous issues in medicine or any other field. 2. The need for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentsÃ¢â¬ The controversial issues arising in ethics are due to the diverse human nature and the difference in cultural values. What an individual values most may be of very little value to the other person. In medical ethics, it would be considered that main aim of providing healthcare services is to promote good health and ensure a longer life for the patients. However, there are other factors that affect human desires and that will limit our access to the health s ervices (Hardwig, 2010, p.1). It would be argued that the health providers should make all the attempts to satisfy the needs of the patients by avoiding issues like the cost consideration. This becomes controversial as a point may be reached when the operations at the health center cannot continue due to lack of resources thereby endangering other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Besides, it is worth mentioning the fact that a patient went to the hospital to seek medical services does not mean that the medical officer has a full say on what to be carried out, neither does it mean that the patient needs all that the doctor wants to provide or perform (Hardwig, 2010, p.1). Similarly, the view a shareholder would be that his profit in an investment be maximized. However, there will be other factors that influence the desires and that will determine if the profit maximization is the supposed interest. The effects of this profit maximization on the conditions imposed on the employees of an organiz ation will provide an evidence to evaluate such procedures. In most causes, it would turn out to be unjustifiable for an investor to be only interested in the profit maximization (Hardwig, 2010, p.1). These controversial issues call for what is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"informed consent.Ã¢â¬ It involves informing the participants to a given decision making activity the probable risks and the conditions associated with the actions to be carried out (Ilgen & Bell, 2001, p.1). It is aimed at ensuring that ethical standards are observed in handling individuals with different interests. It has been found to be applicable in various fields of social sciences that entail research with human participants. The participants in a research need to be informed of the risks involved in participating in the research. However, the American Psychologist Association asserts that there are certain instances when the use of Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentsÃ¢â¬ can be ignored, though it may not be very clear the circumstances under which this may be true. Various legislations have been enacted in the US that protects the rights of the participants in a given research (White, Parascandola & Bero, 2007, p.1). 3. Ethical issues and informed consent in medicine The basic guiding principles that most people value like profit maximization in business or good health and prolonged life in the healthcare
How Homeostasis affects the Interaction of Physiological Processes - Essay Example Due to its distinguishing features and the crucial role that it plays in performing different processes, it has acquired a significant position in physiology. The internal mechanisms of human body are controlled by the constancy of the overall environment called homeostasis. In broader terms it can be said that the different mechanisms of human body perform their functions with the help of constant PH, concentrations of electrolyte and internal body temperature. Homeostasis is basically a controlling system of all the mechanisms which facilitates their smooth activity while maintaining a suitable environment for different functions of brain. Human brain is the most sensitive area of human body which is easily and frequently affected by the fluctuations in the external environment. However, due to the unique characteristics of homeostasis it remains protected from the external adverse impacts. Recent researchers have identified astonishing factors about homeostasis which further stren gthens its position as a key system supporting the brain activities. The internal functions of brain, for instance, transfer of messages through neurons and performance of various other tasks are subject to hypo or hyperactivity if not protected by a supporting and regulating system. This function of regulating the internal environment and protecting neural circuits from stepping in to a hypo or hyperactive state is actually performed by homeostasis. This substantiates that homeostasis is crucially required for the normal and performance of physiological processes in addition to maintaining an internal body environment which is significantly suitable for all other brain functions (GINA G. TURRIGIANO et al., 2004). Physiological Processes It refer to all the physical processes which supports and guards various activities of living organisms including all the unicellular and multi cellular organisms from their birth to the end of their life. There are different physiological processes going on simultaneously in the human body including growth and development, bacterial shedding, nutrition processes, movement etc. (PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, 2009). Homeostasis is yet another type of physiological process which actually maintains a suitable working environment for other physiological processes. The working pattern of homeostasis is further divided into different procedures. For instance, it maintains the acid-base equilibrium and regulates the body temperature through a process called thermogenesis. Furthermore, it gets the feedback on different body movements through the active involvement of sensory nerves while maintaining a sound water-electrolyte balance through the kallikrein-kinin system (HOMEOSTASIS, 2013). There are various physiological changes which are directly affiliated with homeostasis. For instance, consider an example of aging which is experienced by every individual. It is a physiological change accompanied by other changes as well including increa sed blood pressure, decreased cardiac activity, etc. Physiological changes which are particularly related to the mechanism of nervous system include temporary stress and tension, excitement etc. In addition to this other physiological changes which show up as human age increases includes low transference of messages, poor memory, loss of neurons, etc. Homeostasis plays a
Thursday, August 22, 2019
As a firm grows the lines of communication are often stretched Essay As a firm grows the lines of communication are often stretched. To overcome this meetings could be set up to keep people informed. The companys span of control could be re-emphasised so that workers know whom to report to and who to inform of their orders. A clear structure and hierarchical pyramid will reduce arguments in the short term. Team building exercises are a modern way of improving morale, team spirit and efficiency. They are a long-term measure to keep all managers striving for the same aims and goals for the company as a team. I have been assigned by the company Koka Kola to sort out the problem they have where a new base 50 miles outside of there London head quarters has been built. The problem is the communication between the two bases; I need to find the best way to communicate between the two bases. Business Objectives The Business has objectives it must achieve; the businesses main objective is to set up a new communications system between the London Head Office and the newly built Production Site. The problem with this is that it may clash with another objective, Profit. If the company is to spend money on a new communications system it must make sure that the money spent on the system, staff, marketing etc, does not overshadow the money made by sales and other sources of profit. This, although a big problem could have benefits in the long term. If the money spent on setting up the Communications System is more than the profit made that month. In the months after when the System is set up, the benefits in profit as a result of the it being set up could be far greater than that in past months before it was made and so in the future could eventually be bigger than the amount paid on the Communications System and maybe even the Production Site. This concludes that although the short-term objectives maybe conflicted, the long term must be waited upon in order to reap the benefits. Communication: Communication is the process of passing information from one person to another. Once the target receives the information it is acted upon and feedback is sent to the original sender. An example of communication in business might be a company producing cars. The message might be an advertisement on television telling customers about a new car. The target will be the segment of the market interested in buying a car. The feedback will be the level of sales when the magazine first goes on sale. Communications are important in a business because it keeps the company working on the right track. For example if a marketing director who never asked the customers what they wanted in a product made a set up an advertising scheme on television, the advertisement would be based on the directors interests rather than the views of the customers. The customers wouldnt be interested and would turn a blind eye. The problem with the business I have been appointed to is that the business is splitting into two bases amongst which people will work who would normally communicate with each other. I have organised an interview with a worker from a local business to find out what methods of communication they use: 1) How many methods of communication do you use in your business?
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Impact of Feedback Environment on Employee Commitment This research paper examines the effect of feedback environment on employee commitment, with role clarity being the mediating variable in the public and private sectors organizations of Islamabad Rawalpindi city. From the previous researches a link was found between feedback environment and employee commitment at workplace, this study attempts to explore this link in the context of Islamabad. To create employee commitment amongst organizational members has become increasingly important in todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dynamic business environment, because this factor leads to employee retention and a low degree of turnover. For this study a sample size of 200 was taken and different private and public sector organizations were covered in the research work. The research was of hypothesis-testing in nature and responses were collected using standardized questionnaires for each variable. All three variables supervisory and coworker feedback and role clarity proved to be positively associate d with employee commitment; with the feedback from coworker source being the strongest in creating employee commitment followed by role clarity and feedback from supervisor source. The mediating effect of role clarity was not found to be significant and there is still an opportunity for further research in this area to explore this link. However the positive association of role clarity with employee commitment represents its importance in creating employee commitment, though its contribution is small, but this very dimension must not be ignored by the managers of the 21st century. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION It has become necessary for business firms to satisfy all of their major stakeholders (consumers, employees, clients etc) to remain competitive in todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dynamic business environment. The satisfaction and commitment level of a firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s employees is of key importance in determining its human resource strength, which in turn leads to their retention and make an organization able to satisfy the needs of its customers, consumers and clients in both the production and service sectors. Many variables have an impact on the level of commitment of a firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s employees, some of which are job satisfaction level (with intrinsic and extrinsic factors), the quality of leader-member exchange and the overall feedback environment that an employee works in. Many researchers put emphasis on providing feedback to employees in order to satisfy them and consider providing feedback to employees to be essential for maintaining and increasing employee motivation and satisfaction. Traditionally the yearly formal performance appraisal/review in private sector organizations and Annual Confidential Report (ACR) in public sector organizations have been considered as the ideal platform for higher authorities (departmental/organizational heads, supervisors, immediate bosses) to provide feedback to employees about how they view their performance. But employees generally report problems and shortfalls regarding the current methodologies used to asses their performance and characterize the overall process as being too much restricted to a performance appraisal period and involving only one feedback source (departmental/organizational heads, supervisors, and immediate bosses). A qualitative case study by Longenecker and Nykodym (1996) in the public sector illustrated some of the problems associated with traditional performance appraisal method. Employees noted that feedback in performance appraisal was problematic for improving employee motivation and performance, and as a communications tool to improve the manager/subordinate relationship and suggested that managers should: make more time available for providing performance feedback, increase their knowledge of actual performance, better clarify performance expectations, put greater emphasis on employee development, not dwell on negatives, provide more ongoing feedback, and increase two-way communication These suggestions indicate that supervisors/immediate bosses might adopt a number of specific behaviors to support feedback processes in the organization, which in turn might lead to an enhanced manager/subordinate relationship and increased employee satisfaction and hence employee commitment. Here we can see that feedback only after some specified interval and through formal sessions is not sufficient to improve work outcomes (job satisfaction, productivity, employee commitment, organizational citizenship behavior etc). Considering this very fact; Steelman, Levy and Snell (2004) proposed a scale, known as Feedback Environment Scale (FES) with a validation study to demonstrate how different facets of feedback sources (supervisor and coworkers) constitute the overall feedback environment within an organization. This new instrument measures a much more comprehensive view of the feedback environment and is more relevant to the organizations of today and the responsibilities of 21st-cent ury managers. FES may also be defined as a multifaceted construct with two major factors (Supervisor and Coworker) manifested in seven facets. Together, these seven facets reflect the contextual aspects surrounding the transmission of job performance feedback on a recurrent or daily basis (Steelman et al, 2004). In general; Employee commitment is oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s psychological attachment to his or her organizations. The higher the level of Employee Commitment of an individual, the lower are the chances of his/her psychological and physical job withdrawal. Moreover; committed employees are generally productive and go beyond their job descriptions in improving their organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s products and services. Researchers have found a positive link between Feedback Environment Scale and Employee commitment. This link is mediated by a third variable called Role Clarity, which is defined as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have Lyons (1971). This study is aimed to explore this link in a Pakistani context and more specifically in the context of Islamabad, After the confirmation of such a link, mangers can adopt a number of measures to improve employeesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ satisfaction, their level of productivity and employee commitment. Research Objectives To measure the level of performance feedback (from supervisors and coworkers) received by the employees of different organizations, both of public and private sector operating in Islamabad city. To Measure the level of employee commitment of employees working in different organizations To explore the link between feedback environment and employee commitment To suggest specific measures to be adopted in order to increase the overall feedback environment and employee commitment in organizations Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Feedback Environment In the past, the feedback environment has been defined as the type of job performance information that employees perceive as being available to them (Herold Parsons, 1985).but according to the refined and most up-to-date definition; the feedback environment refers to the contextual aspects of day-to-day supervisor-subordinate and coworker-coworker feedback processes rather than to the formal performance appraisal feedback session (Steelman et al, 2004). Consequently, up to now, an organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s feedback environment has been defined as the amount and availability of positive and negative feedback from different sources (Steelman et al, 2004). 2.2 Measurement of Feedback Environment Feedback environment in an organization is measured through a new multifaceted instrument, the Feedback Environment Scale (FES), which helps inform the feedback process in organizations. This new instrument measures a much more comprehensive view of the feedback environment and is more relevant to the organizations of today and the responsibilities of 21st-century managers. FES may also be defined as a multifaceted construct with two major factors (Supervisor and Coworker) manifested in seven facets. Together, these seven facets reflect the contextual aspects surrounding the transmission of job performance feedback on a recurrent or daily basis (Steelman et al, 2004). It is clear that employees receive feedback information from various sources (Greller, 1980; Morrison, 1993) but some authors suggest that supervisor and coworker feedback sources are the most practical and relevant from the feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s point of view (Ashford, 1989). Thus, the FES postulates two factors called Supervisor Source and Coworker Source and the following seven specific facets within each of those source factors: source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, frequency of favorable feedback, frequency of unfavorable feedback, source availability, and promoting feedback seeking (Steelman et al, 2004). Source Credibility is conceptualized as the feedback sourceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expertise and trustworthiness (Giffin, 1967). Consistency and usefulness have been demonstrated to be important aspects of feedback quality (Greller, 1980; Hanser Muchinsky, 1978; Herold, Liden, Leatherwood, 1987). A feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perceptions of the sourceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s intentions in giving feedback will affect reactions and responses to the feedback (Fedor, Eder, Buckley, 1989). Favorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of positive feedback such as compliments from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s view, his or her performance does in fact warrant positive feedback. Correspondingly, unfavorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of negative feedback such as expressions of dissatisfaction and criticism from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s vi ew, his or her performance warrants such feedback (Steelman et al, 2004). Supervisor and/or coworker source availability is operationalized as the perceived amount of contact an employee has with his or her supervisor and/or coworkers and the ease with which feedback can be obtained (Steelman et al, 2004). Feedback seeking is defined as the extent to which the environment is supportive or unsupportive of feedback seeking. It is the extent to which employees are encouraged or rewarded for seeking feedback and the degree to which employees feel comfortable asking for performance feedback (Williams et al, 1999). 2.3 Role Clarity Lyons (1971) defines role clarity as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have. The importance of having role clarity (knowing the tasks and expectations of a job) has been shown in previous research that used both emotional and performance-related measures (Abramis, 1994; Jackson Schuler, 1985; Tubre Collins, 2000). Role clarity is a prerequisite for harmonious interactions with others in the role set (Mcgrath, 1976). The absence of role clarity leads to stress, intrapersonal tension and lowered job satisfaction (Cooper, Sloan Williams, 1988; Hall, 2004). Breaugh Colihan (1994) defined role ambiguity to be job ambiguity and indicated that job ambiguity possesses three distinct aspects: work methods, scheduling, and performance criteria. 2.4 Employee Commitment It is recognized that an employees commitment to an organization can be expressed in three particular ways: affective, continuance, and normative. Affective commitment is focused on an emotional attachment to the organization (Herscovitch, 2002). On the other hand, continuance commitment is when an employee stays with an organization based on a perceived cost of leaving (Herscovitch, 2002). In this case, the employee is staying because he/she thinks it will cost more to go find work elsewhere. Lastly, normative commitment refers to an employees moral obligation to stay with the organization (Herscovitch, 2002). This can arise due to the employee feeling that the organization has treated him/her well and therefore, he/she owes the organization a continued period of employment. In one sense, each type of commitment somewhat ties the individual to the organization; however, each impacts differently on the manner in which the employee conducts him/herself in the workplace. For example, a n employee with an affective commitment will often go above and beyond what is required of his/her position in order to assist the organization in meeting its goals. Employees with high affective commitment tend to be absent from work less frequently and display a higher work motivation and organizational citizenship (McShane, 2001). Continuance commitment, however, is negatively related to performance whereby employees tend to do simply what is required, have higher rates of absenteeism, and low motivation (Johns and Saks, 1996). 2.5 Feedback Environment, Role Clarity/Ambiguity and Employee Commitment Over recent years, there has been a surge of interest in the effects of the feedback environment on work-related outcomes (e.g. Norris-Watts Levy, 2004; Rosen et al., 2006). A favorable feedback environment is positively related to supervisory reported organizational citizenship behavior and that this relationship is partially mediated by affective commitment (Norris-Watts Levy, 2004). Another study tested a mediated model suggesting that the effects of the feedback environment on job satisfaction, and supervisory rated in-role and extra-role performance are mediated by perceptions of organizational politics. In general, this model was supported, again demonstrating the relationship between the feedback environment and several work-related outcomes (Rosen et al., 2006). A field experiment conducted by Tziner and Latham (1989) revealed increased work satisfaction and employee commitment when a goal-setting and feedback program was introduced, but it is not possible to draw the concl usion that this effect emanates from feedback only. Researchers have found a relationship between feedback and role ambiguity (Herold et al, 1987, Peiro et al, 1994, Sawyer, 1992, Teas, 1983, Vredenburgh, 1983). So, even though previous studies lend support to the hypothesis that feedback affects attitudes towards work, there is also a possibility that the uncertainty reducing effect of feedback is the link between feedback and work attitudes, through the intervening influence of role ambiguity. Resultantly, there is also support to hypothesize that feedback only indirectly affects attitude towards work with role ambiguity as a mediating variable (Anders et al, 1999). Mathieu Zajac (1990) conducted a meta-analysis of 48 studies and found that overall employee commitment was low when employees were unsure about what was expected of them (Role Ambiguity). In nine studies, Dunham, Grube, Castaneda (1994) found that employees understanding about the significance of their tasks were somewhat positively related to affective commitment, but not related to normative or continuance commitment. Workers need role clarity to be able to navigate on their own. To improve the opportunity for self feedback there appears a need to strengthen the connection between the individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s work and the organizational goals (Anders et al, 1999). Chapter 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK On the basis of literature review, a relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment was found, being mediated by a third variable, Role Clarity. The following hypothetical link between the variables was drawn and tested. 3.1 Operational Definitions 3.1.1 Feedback Environment (Independent Variable) Feedback Environment has been taken as the independent variable for this study which is defined by Steelman et al (2004) as the amount and availability of positive and negative feedback from different sources. As the feedback environment in organizations is generally measured using the Feedback environment Scale (FES) proposed by Steelman et al (2004), the same will be employed to measure the quality of feedback environment that takes into account two major feedback sources which are: Supervisor source Coworker source Feedback from each source has seven dimensions which are: 22.214.171.124- Source credibility Giffin (1967) defined source credibility as the feedback sourceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expertise and trustworthiness. Perception of trustworthiness an individual imparts to other people. Factors that influence source credibility are expertise and reputation for honesty. 126.96.36.199- Feedback quality Feedback quality refers to its consistency and usefulness which are important aspects of feedback (Greller, 1980; Hanser Muchinsky, 1978; Herold, Liden, Leatherwood, 1987). 188.8.131.52- Feedback delivery It refers to the feedback environment in terms of sourceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s consideration and intentions in his or her delivery of the feedback (Steelman et al 2004). In simple words this dimension is related to the extent of empathy of the feedback source. 184.108.40.206- Favorable feedback Steelman et al (2004) defined favorable feedback as the perceived frequency of positive feedback such as compliments from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s view, his or her performance does in fact warrant positive feedback 220.127.116.11- Unfavorable feedback Unfavorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of negative feedback such as expressions of dissatisfaction and criticism from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s view, his or her performance warrants such feedback (Steelman et al, 2004). 18.104.22.168- Source availability Supervisor and/or coworker source availability is defined as the perceived amount of contact an employee has with his or her supervisor and/or coworkers and the ease with which feedback can be obtained (Steelman et al, 2004). 22.214.171.124- Promoting feedback seeking Williams et al (1999) defined Feedback seeking is defined as the extent to which the environment is supportive or unsupportive of feedback seeking. It is the extent to which employees are encouraged or rewarded for seeking feedback and the degree to which employees feel comfortable asking for performance feedback Responses about each dimension relating to both the sources will be gathered using the FES Questionnaire, proposed by Steelman et al (2004) in their validation study of the FES. 3.2 Employee Commitment (Dependent Variable) For the purpose of this study employee commitment has been defined as an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s psychological attachment to his/her organization. Mainly the three component model of employee commitment by Herscovitch (2002) is used, which says that the commitment level itself consists of three parts; affective, continuance and normative commitment. Somers (1995) defined Affective commitment as an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s emotional attachment to an organizational goals and values. Normative commitment is a perceived duty to support the organization and its activities, whereas; continuance commitment is however interacted with affective commitment in predicting job withdrawal intentions and absenteeism. The level of employee commitment was measured using the employee commitment questionnaire by John Meyer Natalie Allen (1991). Figure 3.1: The Theoretical Relationship between Feedback Environment and Employee Commitment with the Mediating Effect of Role Clarity/Ambiguity 3.3 Role Clarity/Ambiguity (Mediating Variable) Role clarity is defined as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have Lyons (1971). Or simply knowing the tasks and expectations of oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s job is known as Role Clarity. From the previous studies there appeared a relationship between feedback and employee commitment with the mediating effect of role clarity/ambiguity, and it was conceived in this study that the quality of feedback environment leads to role clarity or ambiguity as feedback serves the purpose of clarifying an employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role which leads to employee commitment (Mathieu Zajac 1990, Dunham, Grube, Castaneda 1994). Role Clarity was measured using the standardized questionnaire proposed by Rizzo et al (1970). 3.4 Hypotheses: The following seven hypotheses were tested to explore the link between the following: Supervisory Feedback and SubordinateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Role Clarity Coworker Feedback and IncumbentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Role Clarity Feedback Environment and Employee commitment Role Clarity and Employee commitment 3.5 Hypotheses Statements Hypothesis 1: Ho: There is no relationship between supervisory feedback and subordinateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role clarity Hypothesis 1: H1: There is a relationship between supervisory feedback and subordinateÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role clarity Hypothesis 2: Ho: There is no relationship between coworker feedback and employee role clarity Hypothesis 2: H1: There is a relationship between coworker feedback and employee role clarity Hypothesis 3: Ho: There is no relationship between feedback environment and employee role clarity Hypothesis 3: H1: There is a relationship between feedback environment and employee role clarity Hypothesis 4: Ho: There is no relationship between supervisory feedback and employee commitment Hypothesis 4: H1: There is a relationship between supervisory feedback and employee commitment Hypothesis 5: Ho: There is no relationship between coworker feedback and employee commitment Hypothesis 5: H1: There is a relationship between coworker feedback and employee commitment Hypothesis 6: Ho: There is no relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment Hypothesis 6: H1: There is a relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment Hypothesis 7: Ho: There is no relationship between employee role clarity and employee commitment Hypothesis 7: H1: There is a relationship between employee role clarity and employee commitment Chapter 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information. Having identified the variables of the study and developing the theoretical framework, the next step was to design the research in a way that the required data could be gathered and analyzed to arrive at a solution. A Survey was conducted, based on a questionnaire. The term questionnaire refers to a list of questions, usually printed, and submitted for replies that can be analyzed for usable information. 4.1 Purpose of the Study The research was of hypothesis-testing in nature. The characteristics of variables and their relationship were defined in the previous section. Hypotheses were formulated on the basis of relationships between the two main variables (feedback environment and employee commitment). Researches have shown that there is positive relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment. Those studies were conducted in different parts of the world and the current research is based on the hypotheses which are to be tested to find if there is a positive relationship between the said variables. 4.2 Type of Investigation The purpose of our research was to find out if there is relation between variables, the type of investigation chosen was correlation. 4.3 Extent of Researcher Interference with the Study The primary data was collected through the questionnaire. The data was collected in natural environment and the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s interference was minimal. 4.4 Study Settings The research was conducted in natural environment where work proceeds normally, i.e. in non-contrived settings. The study was based on Field Experiment where all activities were occurring in natural work environment. 4.5 Unit of Analysis In this study, individuals were studied separately. Research team studied the feedback received from the two sources (supervisor and coworker) and through the questionnaire investigated the relevant variables and their relationship. 4.6 Sampling A sample is a subset of a larger population that contains its major characteristics. In this step the following decisions were taken: Who is to be sampled (sampling unit) How large a sample should be (sample size) How will sample units be selected (sampling technique) 4.7 Sampling Unit To get the representation from all levels of management and all types of organizations, employees form each layer of management were selected as sample from different organizations ranging from manufacturing to service, both from public and private sectors. Responses were gathered from the employees of the following organizations: Askari Bank, Balochistan TeachersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Training Academy, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Cantonment Hospital, Chiltan Ghee Mills, Civil Secretariat, Concern Worldwide, Habib Bank Ltd, Mercy Crops, National Bank, PTCL, Islamabad Electric Supply Company (QESCO), SME Bank, Sui Southern Gas Company Ltd (SSGC), Telecard, Telenor, UNDP and Warid Telecom 4.8 Sample Size The sample size for the study was 200. Employees from each of the above-mentioned organization were asked to respond the questionnaires. 4.9 Sampling Technique Probability sampling was used for the research; in such type of sampling each member of population has an equal chance of becoming a sample. 4.10 The Questionnaire The Questionnaire had the following sections: 4.10.1 Section-1 (Demographics) The first section investigated about the respondentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s demographical characteristics including: Age Gender Marital Status Qualification Managerial level Nature of work Experience in years The respondents were not asked to mention their names or disclose their identity and it was ensured to keep the information confidential. 4.10.2 Section-2 3 (Supervisory and Coworker Feedback Measurement) These sections contained questions about the supervisory and coworker feedback received by the respondents focusing on the following dimensions: Source credibility Feedback quality Feedback delivery Favorable feedback Unfavorable feedback Source availability Promoting feedback seeking The items of this section were obtained from the validation study of feedback environment (Steelman et al, 2004). 4.10.3 Section-4 (Employee commitment Measurement) This section contained questions about the level of employee commitment of the respondents. 4.10.4 Section-5 (Role Clarity Measurement) This section contained questions measuring the Role Clarity of the respondents. 4.11 Data Collection In this phase the research moved from papers to the field. Data was gathered in the form of responses from the respondents. Questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data and 100% of the respondents were surveyed through it. As mentioned above different organizations from public and private sector were visited to collect the responses. Questionnaires were distributed and taken back from the respondents after two to three days. Total time taken to complete the data collection process was two weeks. The respondents were guided about filling the questionnaires and the queries were responded properly. Chapter 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5. Hypothesis Testing All seven hypotheses of the study were tested on the following parameters: Confidence level: (1-ÃÅ½Ã ±) = 0.95 (95%) Level of Significance: ÃÅ½Ã ± = 0.05 Statistic used: t-statistic Sample size: n = 200 Table 5.1: Results of Hypothesis Testing Hypotheses t-calculated t-tabulated Computation Result 1 2.20 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 2 1.97 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 3 2.13 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 4 3.74 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 5 6.88 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 6 6.18 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho 7 1.99 +1.96 tcal>ttab Rejected Ho Where: tcal = the calculated value of t-statistic ttab = the tabulated value of t-statistic It is clear from the results of table 5.1, that all seven alternative hypotheses were accepted as the value of t-calculated found be higher than the value of t-tabulated regarding each hypothesis. This shows that there is a link between each of the independent variable (feedback from supervisor and coworker source, feedback environment and role clarity) with the dependent variable (employee commitment). 5.1 Correlation Analysis The second analysis involved regressing each of the predictors on the outcome variable i.e. employee commitment. The results are presented in table 5.2 A correlation matrix was developed for Supervisory Feedback, Coworker feedback and Role clarity with Employee Commitment. According to the results, all the three variables were positively associated with Employee Commitment. The association represents a positive linear relationship between the dependent variable; Employee Commitment and each of the independent variables. Table 5.2: Correlation Matrix for Employee Commitment Variable Supervisory Feedback Coworker feedback Role Clarity Commitment Supervisory Feedback 1.000 0.534** 0.123** 0.257** Coworker feedback 0.534** 1.000 0.139** 0.439** Role Clarity 0.123** 0.139** 1.000 0.097** Commitment 0.257** 0.439** 0.097** 1.000 ** p Coworker feedback was most strongly associated with Employee Commitment (0.439), followed by supervisory feedback (0.257) and role clarity (0.097). All relationships were statistically significant at p The correlation analysis of employee commitment as shown in table 5.1 indicates that all the associations (between x and y variables) were positive. This signifies that a positive linear relationship exists between x and y variable. Coworker feedback was most strongly related with employee commitment, followed by role clarity and supervisory feedback. All relations were statistically significant at 0.01 levels. 5.3 Regression Analysis The value of R2 was 0.195. The first independent variable, coworker feedback [0.419, P Table 5.3: Regression Analysis of Feedback Environment at workplace (Dependent Variable= Employee Commitment Variable Coefficient Standard Error Standardized Beta Intercept 1.783** 0.262 - Supervisory Feedback 0.029** 0.077 0.029 Coworker feedback 0.388** 0.071 0.419 Role Clarity
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Hindustan petroleum corporation limited Chapter-1 1.1Introduction to Hindustan Petroleum HPCL (Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited), a Navratna PSU of the Government of India, is a Fortune 500 company of India listed at number 311 in the global 500 rankings, with an annual turnover of over Rs. 1,16,428 Crores and sales/income from operations of Rs 1,31,802 Crores (US$ 25,618 Millions) during financial year 2008-09, about 20% Marketing share in India and a strong market infrastructure. Corresponding figures for financial year 2007-08 are: Turnover- Rs 1,03,837 crores, and sales/income from Operations- Rs. 1,12,098 Crores (US$ 25,142 Million). HPCL operates 2 major refineries producing a wide variety of petroleum fuels specialties, one in Mumbai (West Coast) of 5.5 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) capacity and the other in Vishakapatnam, (East Coast) with a capacity of 7.5 MMTPA. HPCL holds an equity stake of 16.95% in Mangalore Refinery Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL), a state-of-the-art refinery at Mangalore with a capacity of 9 MMTPA. Another Refinery of 9 MMTPA is under construction in Bathinda, Punjab by HMEL, a Joint Venture with Mittal Energy Investments Pte.Ltd. HPCL also owns and operates the largest Lube Refinery in India producing Lube Base Oils of international standards. With a capacity of 335 TMT. This Lube Refinery accounts for over 40% of the Indias total Lube Base Oil production. Presently HPCL produces over 300+ grades of Lubes, Specialities and Greases. The marketing network of HPCL consists of 13 Zonal offices in major cities and 90 Regional offices facilitated by a Supply Distribution infrastructure comprising Terminals, Aviation Service Facilities, LPG Bottling Plants, Lube filling plants, Inland Relay Depots, Retail Outlets (Petrol Pumps) and LPG Lube Distributorships. HPCL has, over the years, moved from strength to strength on all fronts. The refining capacity steadily increased from 5.5 million metric tonnes in 1984/85 to 13.00 million metric tonnes (MMT) now. On the financial front, the turnover grew from Rs. 2687 crores in 1984-85 to Rs 1,31,802 Crores in Financial year 2008-09. 1.2History of Hindustan Petroleum Ltd. 1952 The Company was incorporated in the name of Standard Vacuum Refining Company of India Limited on July 5, 1952 under the Indian Companies Act, VII of 1913. 1962 On 31st March the name was changed to ESSO Standard Refining Company of India Limited. 1976 With the nationalization of Caltex Undertakings in India the same were also taken over by the Government of India and subsequently merged with HPCL. 1979 The undertakings of Kosangas Company Ltd. were merged with HPCL. As part of the disinvestment in PSUs, shares of HPCL were sold by the Government to Financial Institutions, Mutual Funds and Banks. Presently the Government holding in HPCL is 60.31%. The balance is being held by Financial Institutions, Mutual Funds, Banks, Foreign Institutional Investors, Employees and Individual Shareholders. It has co-promoted several joint ventures like Mangalore Refinery Petrochemicals (MRPL), Hindustan Colas, Petronet India, Punjab Refinery Project, Visakh Power Project, Prize Petroleum Co South Asia LPG Co. 1983 The capacity of lube plant was increased by an additional 74,000 tonnes per annum of high viscosity index lube base stocks. 1985 The crude unit and related off-sites were commissioned in January and fluid catalytic cracking unit was commissioned in August. During the year corporation embarked upon a project to expand the crude distillation capacity at Mumbai by 2 million tonnes per annum at an estimated cost of Rs.45 crores. This project was commissioned in April. 1988 Mangalore Refineries Petrochemicals Ltd., is the first joint sector refinery being set up in the country after the Government has allowed entry of the private sector in the petroleum refining industry. 1989 During the year corporation installed the latest C-generations concept 3*10 MW gas turbines to meet the power requirement at Bombay Refinery with facilities to generate steam simultaneously. 1991 During September 3*10 MW gas turbine generators and heat recovery steam generators were commissioned at a cost of Rs.79.22 crores at Mumbai. 1993 During March an MOU was entered into between Govt. of India and Govt. of Sultanate of Oman, HPCL and Oman Oil Co., Ltd., for setting up 6 million TPA refinery on the West Coast of India through a joint venture company called Hindustan Oman Petroleum Co. Ltd. 1995 During February, the company issued 173,50,000 equity shares of Rs.10 each with detachable warrants of Rs.380 each as follows. a. On firm allotment basis: i) 34,70,000 equity shares with warrants to Indian Financial institutions ii) 3,35,000 shares with warrants to Indian Mutual Funds. b. Preferencial allotment basis: i) 17,35,000 shares with warrants to share to employees ii) 17,75,000 shares with warrants to shareholders of the company, iii) 34,70,000 shares with warrants to NRIs, balance 66,05,000 shares were issued to the public. 1996 During the year March a joint venture with Colas S.A of France, the company commenced its first State-of-the-art Bitumen emulsion Plant of 20,000 TPA capacity at Vashi, named Hindustan Coalas Ltd. 1999 American Express and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for card acceptance at various gas stations. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) and Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) have entered into an agreement for setting up a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipeline and infrastructure from Visakhapatnam to Secunderabad via Rajamundry and Vijayawada. The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) has allowed the joint venture of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Total of France, to set up LNG terminals and venture into downstream activities such as marketing of petro-products, etc. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) is celebrating its silver jubilee year with Shakti Utsavs in major Indian cities. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. has introduced its smart card in Bangalore for the first time in the country. 2004 HPCL Marketing Initiatives in Sri Lanka Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has formed a 50:50 joint venture with Total Gas and Power India (TGPI), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Total France, to develop the biggest underground Cavern LPG Storage project at Visakhapatnam Gets award for industrial safety by National Safety Council, Kerala Chapter in chemical industries sector Inks pact with Shell India Private Ltd for product and infrastructure sharing between the two companies Signs agreement with US Pizza, a pizza outlet, which would be opening over 500 delivery units at HPCLs outlets around the country. The understanding is aimed at making the partnership the largest food chain in the country Mr S. Roy Choudhary has been appointed as Director-Marketing in Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL), effective May 10 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd on June 26 signed a memorandum of understanding with Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Birla Power Solutions, a Yash Birla Group company, has tied up with Hindustan Petroleum Corp Ltd (HPCL) to produce electricity generators, which run on LPG HPCL launches unique smart card Hindustan Petroleum Corporation signs MoU Confidentiality agreement with Chevron Texaco 2005 HPCL signs MoU with RCF (Rashtriya Chemicals Fertilisers Ltd ) HPCL ropes in Sania Mirza to endorse retail brands Pizza Corner forges alliance with HPCL Amex, HPCL unveils co-branded credit card HPCL opens new LPG bunk in Visakhapatnam HPCL partners with MSFCL for bio-diesel venture HPCL signed an agreement with BP plc (formerly known as British Petroleum) to form 50:50 strategic joint venture partnership HPCL signs MoU with Gail on November 16, 2005 2006 HPCL, MyTVS unveils MyTVS Club HP Smart1 cards HPCL signs MoU with SINOPEC HPCL join hands with Malbro Appliances to market LPG stoves Kamat Group joins hand with HPCL for food joints Nirlep Appliances Ltd, manufacturer of cookware, has entered into a marketing pack with HPCL for marketing non-stick cookware, regular inner and outer lid pressure cookers and gas stoves. 2007 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has informed that Shri. Arun Balakrishnan earlier Director (HR) has taken charge as Chairman Managing Director of the Company effective April 01, 2007 (AM). Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) and ONGC have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), covering Product Sale Purchase, Infrastructure Services and Co-operation in Energy related fields. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has informed that Shri. P V Rajaraman, retired IAS Officer and former Chairman of Tamilnadu Industrial Investment Corporation has been co-opted as part-time Non-officio Director on the Board of the Company. Mr V. Vizia Saradhi assumed charge as the Director, Human Resources, of the HPCL on Aug 3. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has informed that Shri. V Viziasaradhi has been appointed as Director Human Resources on the Board of the Company effective August 03, 2007 (PM). 2008 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has informed that Shri. L N Gupta, Joint Secretary Refineries, Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas (MOPNG) has been co-opted as part-time ex-officio Director on the Board of HPCL at the Board Meeting held on June 25, 2008 (PM). 2009 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) has appointed following firms as statutory / Branch Auditors for the Financial year 2009-10. V. Sankar Aiyar Co. : Joint Statutory Auditors Om Agarwal Co. : Joint Statutory Auditors Gandhy Co. : Branch Auditors for Visakh Refinery. 1.3Products Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. a diverse range of products, from petrochemicals and solvents to aircraft fuel and speciality lubricants and markets them through its wide network of Petrol Stations, Kerosene Dealers, LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides supplying fuel directly to hundreds of industries, and several international and domestic airlines. Unaudited Financial Result for 2nd Quarter 2009-2010 28th Oct. 2009: Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited has registered a turnover of Rs. 25,868 crores for the period July September, 2009 as against Rs. 32,691 crores in the corresponding previous period largely due to the decline in the international prices of crude oil and products. The sales of petroleum products (including exports) have increased to 6.26 million tonnes registering a growth of above 4% over the second quarter of the previous year. The growth in domestic sales during April September, 2009 was 6.4%, the highest growth among oil marketing PSUs. The refineries at Mumbai and Visakh processed 8.12 million tonnes of crude during April September, 2009 as against 7.55 million tonnes during April September, 2008. The combined GRM recorded for April September, 2009 was US $ 3.79 /bbl. On the financial front, the loss for the period July-September, 2009 was Rs.137 crores as against a loss of Rs 3,219 crores for July-September, 2008. However for the period April September, 2009, HPCL reported a profit after tax of Rs 512 crores as against a loss of Rs 4,107 crores during April September, 2008. The interest cost for July-September, 2009 was lower at Rs 249 crores, as compared to Rs 527 crores during the same period of previous year. The decrease in interest cost was due to lower levels of borrowings as also lower rates of interest. The net under recovery on sale of sensitive petroleum products during the second quarter also came down to Rs 1,453 crores from Rs 1,818 crores during corresponding previous period. During the quarter, the foreign exchange gain was Rs 92 crores as against loss of Rs 245 crores in the corresponding quarter of last year. The facilities for Euro III petrol production at Mumbai Refinery and at Visakh Refinery have been commissioned during this quarter. The new JV Refinery at Bathinda, viz. HPCL Mittal Energy Ltd. (HMEL) is progressing as per schedule. About 50% physical completion has already been achieved. The Project is progressing ahead of schedule and mechanical completion is expected by March, 2011. Chapter-2 Review of literature 2.1Review of Literature Hydro Oil Energy increases annual production growth rate to 8%(2002) NORDIC BUSINESS REPORT-12 June 2002-Hydro Oil Energy increases annual production growth rate to 8% (C)1994-2002 M2 COMMUNICATIONS LTD http://www.m2.com The Norwegian company Norsk Hydro ASA said today that it had revised upward the production profile and average annual production growth rate of its Hydro Oil Energy business. Staying Power(2004) The North Sea oil industry is a quintessentially Scottish business, with its operational hub in Aberdeen. Aberdeen has built a reputation for excellence in supporting the UK oil and gas industry. With oil and gas production amounting to about 3.7m barrels of oil equivalent a day (boe/d), Scotland remains a significant hydrocarbons producer in world terms. And a considerable amount of hydrocarbons remains to be produced up to 30bn boe, the UK Offshore Operators Association claims. But while the North Sea offers growth opportunities for niche operators, Aberdeen must reach out to other regions and new business areas. To remain an active source of oilfield services, a focus on research and development and innovative thinking will be needed, as well as timely government help. Oil wealth offers new opportunity(2004) With international banks set to enter Saudi Arabias previously guarded markets, as the long-awaited capital market law comes into effect, the threat of increased competition is looming on the horizon for the countrys banks. At the same time, one of Saudi banks main sources of income the issuance of government paper is slowly drying up. Despite this, Saudi institutions can look forward to a bright future of growing lending opportunities and robust profitability. As consumers embark on an oil-driven spending spree, the local market is as buoyant as it has been for many years. Consumer lending shows no signs of abating and margins remain fat enough to compensate for a tailing off in the issuance of government debt. With Saudi Arabia pumping out more than nine million barrels of crude at oil prices above $35 per barrel, the government is overflowing with liquidity. QATAR: Gas-based development delivers growth(2004) Qatari and international oil companies plan to spend more than 55 billion dollars in the next decade on hydrocarbons projects, according to an oil official in Doha this week. SIGNIFICANCE: Qatar has developed a strategy to reduce dependence on oil and maximize its other hydrocarbons resources, and has undertaken significant economic and political reforms. The vigor with which it has pursued these could provide a model for other Gulf states. Reforms fuel growth boom(2005) North Africa is a good place to do business. North African companies dominate the top companies rankings, be they the oil and gas companies of Algeria and Egypt; tourism companies in Tunisia and Morocco or construction, telecoms and IT businesses throughout the sub-region. Egypts foreign reserves broke the $17 billion level to record $17.32 billion last February, compared to $16.6 billion in January. The formal economy is still dominated by the oil and gas sector, with Sonatrach accounting over 40% of GDP and 95% of exports. The telecoms sector has also posted strong growth. In the year September 2004, Orascom Algeria, through its subsidiary Djezzy, saw its revenues increase five-fold since 2002, from $107 million to $523 million. Algeria, through Sonatrach, is now the second largest supplier of gas to Europe after US: mixed blessings(2006) Its a great time to be in the US petroleum storage business. With imports of crude oil and gasoline reaching record levels and domestic refineries churning out products at an almost unprecedented pace, utilization rates have continued to climb at the tank farms that serve the energy industry. In many parts of the country, terminals are operating at or near capacity. In response to these favorable market conditions, the industry has experienced some expansion, with master limited partnerships (MLPs), such as Valero, leading the way. Magellan Midstream Partners (MMP) recently added 0.6 million barrels of capacity to its refined-products terminals in Corpus Christi, TX, and Marrero, LA. Because of the long lead time required, the decision to add tankage is not one firms take lightly. Some terminal companies are opting instead to expand capacity through acquisition, continuing the trend towards industry consolidation. Growth rate in India may dip due to oil prices, inflation (2006 ) New Delhi, Sep 3 Indias scorching economic growth rate, the second fastest in the world after China for the last three years, is expected to slow down this fiscal due to high international oil prices and fear of high inflation. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is sticking to its June projection of India clocking around eight percent growth in 2006-07, less than the economic growth of 8.4 percent last fiscal. The estimate of lower growth, the leading industry lobby states in its latest State of the Economy (SOE) report, is based on expectations of higher inflationary pressures strives, some problems, and oil industry earnings growth is slowing down(2007) The giant oil company, formed by the merger of HPCL. and Amoco Corp. in 1998, has set the bar high with production growth targets that exceed those of its competitors. Oil Gas(2009 ) The oil and gas industry has been instrumental in fuelling the rapid growth of the Indian economy. The petroleum and natural gas sector which includes transportation, refining and marketing of petroleum products and gas constitutes over 15 per cent of the GDP.Petroleum exports have also emerged as the single largest foreign exchange earner, accounting for 17.24 per cent of the total exports in 2007-08. Growth continued in 2008-09 with the export of petroleum products touching US$ 23.63 billion during April-December 2008.In November 2008, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs awarded 44 oil and gas exploration blocks under the seventh round of auction of the New Exploration Licensing Policy (Nelp-VII). The overall number of blocks brought under exploration now exceeds 200.The allocation is likely to bring in investments worth US$ 1.5 billion. The eighth round of auction is going to be later this year. Govt may hike petrol price by Rs2 a litre, diesel by Re1 (2009) The government has been mulling decontrolling petrol and diesel prices for couple of months now but may be fast losing the window as the move would now result in steep rise in fuel prices Oil India plans IPO to raise as much as $570 mln( 2009) NEW DELHI, Aug 25 (Reuters) Explorer Oil India Ltd plans to raise as much as 27.8 billion rupees ($570 million) through an IPO next month, a senior official said, making it the second state-run firm to offer new shares to the public this year.Oil India, which deferred an IPO last year amid the global financial crisis, has set a price band of 950 rupees to 1,050 rupees a share, Director for Finance T. K. Ananth Kumar said by phone on Tuesday.We have set an exploration and production programmed for the next two years where we will use the IPO proceeds, he said.Oil India, which is tasked with scouting for oil and gas along with larger state-run rival Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC.BO), has planned to invest 45 billion rupees in exploration and production over the next two years, he said. Some alternate fuels show growth rate(2009) A lot has been written lately about natural-gas powered vehicles. A story appeared Feb. 16 in the Oil Gas Journal by Sam Fletcher that pointed out that natural gas has been around as a transportation fuel since World War II.Natural gas vehicles have increased dramatically in recent years from 1.7 million vehicles worldwide in 2001 to more than 7 million today. NGVs have increased rapidly in Europe and South America primarily because of environmental concerns and rising prices for crude oil, gasoline and diesel. The International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles predicts a growth rate of 18 percent, which represents about 65 million NGVs by 2020. Chapter-3 3.1Objectives of Study The objective of the research is to study the growth rate of Hindustan Petroleum. It includes following:- Growth of Hindustan Petroleum as compare to the other petroleum companies. To study the brand image of the Hindustan Petroleum. To analyze the satisfaction level of the customers for the services of Hindustan Petroleum. The objective of the model is also to predict the behavior of a customer, regarding consumption of Hindustan Petroleum . Over all study of marketing process . Chapter-4 Research Methodology 4.1Sampling Plan:- Universe: The area of study is Jalandhar and nearby areas. Sampling Procedure: In this study, the respondents were chosen through convenience sampling was undertaken where all the accessible persons were contacted by tracing them from the records. Contact Method: The respondents were contacted personally and information was derived and questionnaires were filled. Sample Size: 100 Sampling Technique: A non-probability sampling technique i.e. convenience sampling is used. 4.2Research Design:- Research design is simply the framework or plan for a study used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data. It is the blue print that is following in completing a study. The research design must be accordingly. Formulating objective of the study. Designing the method of data collection. Collection of data Suggestions and recommendations. Conclusion and interpretations. Research includes questionnaires, observations and facts used to find enquiries of different kind. Questionnaires for customers and retailers are framed out to get to know the main problems of both customers and retailers. 4.3 Source of Data Collection:- PRIMERY DATA- It is the data which is collected initially for the first time. It helps in the validation of secondary data from secondary sources. The main sources of primary data are questionnaires, observations, personal interactions, interviews. SECONDARY DATA- Secondary data is the details that are available in the form of facts and figures. The sources of secondary data are; Magazines, journals, websites, books. In this research both primary and secondary data is used to get the accurate information. 4.4Research instruments or tools used:- Research instruments or tools used for collection of information are questionnaires, study of market, information collected from website. Through questionnaires customers and tell about the services provided by Hindustan Petroleum. They also give details about their problems. They give their suggestions for the improvement in the services. Their answers and information collected through websites, magazines and newspaper tell about the market position of Hindustan Petroleum. These tools help in analyzing and interpreting the result of the research. Analytical Design:- Mathematical tools like mean score; percentage, chi square test and Z- test etc were used. Limitations:- I do think that there were some limitations in collecting the data from both primary and secondary sources. The main boundaries were: Some customer may not have given the actual information because of lack of time. The results found are bound to change with every introduction of new schemes by any of the brands. Some people manning the outlet did not share the required information with the research investigators. Data collection error may be there to wrong response from respondent as some time they are not right person who takes actual decision. As per knowledge data was collected and analyzed, error may be there Chapter-5 Interpretation The above data is showing the growth of Hindustan Petroleum. The table is showing the growth in sales of Hindustan Petroleum in terms of cost of goods sold, EBITDA, IBECC, and Sales per employee. Now first of all we will study the sales of Hindustan Petroleum, the above data is showing the figures from the year 2003 to 2009. In 2003 the sales was -2.1% which is showing the lose of Hindustan Petroleum. It is showing the declining situation of the company, but if we will see the figures of 2004 then we will come to know that there is a quick rise in the sales of Hindustan Petroleum from -2.1% to 6.0%, which is very good for the growth of the company. Like this only if we will see the data of 2005 then there is a shocking growth in the sales of Hindustan Petroleum from 6.0% to 13.9%. But if we will look on the sales of 2006 the growth then there is a slow down in the sales of Hindustan Petroleum. If we will see the sales from 2007 to 2009 then we will come to know then the sales of Hind ustan Petroleum is continues rise in sales. Same is the condition of cost of goods sold and EBITDA there is a continues rise in sales. If we will talk about the sales per employee then we will come to know that there is increase in sales per employee because the numbers of employees are also increasing. So we can say that if the number of employees will increase then the sale per employee will also be increase. So the overall table is showing the growth of sales of Hindustan Petroleum. Analysis of the Respondent of Customers The questionnaire (given in the end of the report) was used to gather information on the following areas: Where does Tata Hindustan Petroleum stand in the market against the other petroleum players? Problems of the customers regarding the service provided by Hindustan Petroleum. Suggestions and recommendations taken from customers. Sample Size: 100 Sampling Area: Jalandhar Analysis has been done with the help of software named SPSS i.e. Software of Processing of Social Sciences. Main methods used for the analysis are Factor Analysis, Z-test, and Mean Ranking as per the necessity of the question. It helps in determining the results on the basis of the answers given by customers who are using the service of Hindustan Petroleum primarily and secondarily. This software is very beneficial for getting the results. It is not time consuming and easy to operate. We just have to fill the answers in the SPSS sheet we get the required outcome in fractions of seconds. Chapter-6 Summary, Conclusions Recommendations 6.1Summary This term paper is about the growth rate of Hindustan Petroleum. The survey has been done in Jalandhar and nearby places. This research also helps in gaining lots of practical knowledge which is different from mere theoretical knowledge. The term paper contains the introduction of the Hindustan Petroleum. We are here in technological age. In the market which are providing different products and services to their customers so that they can sustain in this era of tough competition. Now, India is coming up with new concepts to become a developed country in the world and also trying its best to provide all the available resources to its people. In this project both primary and secondary data is collected to analyze the market properly. After collecting the data from primary and secondary sources, analysis has been done with the help of SPSS. Through this survey we come to know that growth rate of Hindustan Petroleum is increasing day by day . 6.2Conclusions The survey has been done to take certain parameters which are essential for good petroleum service parameters. This survey has done in Jalandhar and nearby areas. The main conclusions that I have figure out are following: Hp has a good brand image in the market. Due to which customers buy their product. Advertisement play very effective role in promoting products. HP is able to provide the information of new schemes and products to the costumer on time. HP is successful to solve the problems of costumer on time. 6.3Recommendations After doing the analysis of study we come across the number of conclusions. Hindustan Petroleum is facing number of problems in the market due to other companies. But as India has a huge market for business so there is a scope for those who really want to do something for themselves as well as for people. The main recommendations for Hindustan Petroleum are given below which can help it to improve and pick up its position. HP should work on its marketing strategies so that it can gain the attention of more and more people. More and more advertisement should be given . Seriously deals with the problems of customers. This may forces the customers to be loyal toward this brand. It should provide information about new schemes to its customer on time . References Reference to a book: Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology, 4th edition. New Delhi: Kalyani publishers,2007 Kotler, Philip, (2006), Marketing Management: Planning, Analysis, Implementation and Control, New Delhi, Pearson Education, Inc. Naresh K. Malhotra., (2005), Marketing Research, New Delhi: Pearson Education, Inc. Reference for an article: http://www.livemint.com/Articles/keywords.aspx?kw=Hindustan%20Petroleum http://www.ibef.org/industry/oilandgas.aspx http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0did=824057411SrchMode=1sid=3Fmt=4VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1256141933clientId=129893 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=7did=982527671SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=3VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1256141881clientId=129893 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=10did=783954681SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=2VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1256142461clientId=129893 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=11did=676362041SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=2VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1256142461clientId=129893 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?i
Monday, August 19, 2019
Changing Attitudes of Ferhat Abbas Introduction Ferhat Abbas believed in the peaceful solution and that the French are willing to co-operate with the Algerians. With this co-operation, he thought, it was possible for all to live together. He was brought up and thought to believe in democracy and parliament, to look for these in a peaceful fashion and that the people have to be asked what to do with their country and not to be terrorised to be convinced differently. However in the 1950's we can see a clear change, a turn in his thoughts. He accepts more violent ways in order to gain what he believes in. In order to explain the change in attitudes of Ferhat Abbas it is important that we first look at his background. In 1899 Ferhat Abbas was born. He had, like many others, received entirely French education at Constantine and at the University of Algiers. After finishing his studies he had served the French Army for two year after which he founded a pharmacist shop in Setif. There he also founded a student union which was a start of his political career. Soon he was accepted into the city Council where he fought for the emancipation of Algerians from the French. In 1938 Abbas founded the Union Populaire AlgÃ ©rienne which peacefully fought for the equal rights of Algerians and French. Believing in the possible co-operation of French and Algerians he had, fought alongside the French. Political Career During the war Abbas still continues his work towards the equality. In 1943 he wrote the 'Manifesto of the Algerian People' which was than proclaimed and several times sent to the French authorities. "The French colony only admits equality with Muslim Algeria on one level; sacrifice on the battlefields." This manifesto represented some very revolutionary ideas and proposed the equality of rights and "immediate and effective participation." Also in this manifesto Abbas continuously condemns the French oppressive colonialism and even asks for the self- determination of the whole population as a different culture. Soon afterward he wrote an addition to the manifesto in which he sees the Algeria as the country separate from France. In the book 'A Savage War of Peace' his attitude is described as following: "Of pacific temperament, although he was a skilful debater, he was no rabble- rouser..."(Horne,1979, p.40). The A.M.L On its rejection by the French governor general, Ferhat Abbas and an Algerian working-class leader, Messali Hadj, formed the Amis du Manifeste et de la LibertÃ © (A.M.L. ; Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty), which envisioned an Algerian autonomous republic federated to a renewed, anti-colonial France.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Willy Loman as Tragic Hero in Death of a Salesman Willy Loman, the troubled father and husband in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman, can be classified as a tragic hero, as defined by Aristotle in his work, Poetics. In Aristotle's Poetics, a tragic hero was defined as one who falls from grace into a state of extreme despair. Willy, as we are introduced to him, becomes increasingly miserable as he progresses from a dedicated, loving father, though not without flaws, into a suicidal, delusional man. The definition of a tragic hero, as stated in "Poetics," also describes a person who is influential and is of significance to others. Though, in actuality, Willy Loman may not possess these characteristics, he perceives himself as having them as he cares for himself, his children and his wife. A final distinction noted by Aristotle was that a tragic hero is not a bad person deserving of his impending misfortune, but instead, has made a series of mistakes leading to his downfall. We can see that Willy does not purposely create this harmful situation for himself, he is only ignorant that certain actions of his are wrong, which contribute to his self-ruin. Willy Loman therefore personifies the attributes of a tragic hero as proposed by Aristotle. Ã Ã Ã Willy, with a house, a car, a job, two sons whom he adores, and a supportive, caring wife, seems to have everything that any man could ever want. He manages, however, to alienate himself from these things that he loves near the end of the play as he slips into a self-induced state of altered reality. Willy, being "...lonely...terribly lonely" (Miller, page #) has an affair with a woman during his marriage to Linda. Even though Linda is not aware of this, or makes no mention of ... ...id not keep his sales skills sharpened, but he never purposely hurt the people in his life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Through the actions of Willy Loman, and the reactions of those around him, we can see that his character follows the model of a tragic hero presented by Aristotle in his works, "Poetics." Willy passes through life in a path that begins with prosperity, as evidenced by his possessions and successful family, and ends with misery, when he loses his job and commits suicide. Willy has indeed made mistakes in his life, and we can recognize that they are mistakes and were never intended to harm anyone, but instead to satisfy his own needs. These characteristics then, by Aristotle's determination, make him not a "wicked man" (Aristotle, 1303), and not a virtuous man, but "a man whose place is between these extremes"; (Aristotle, 1303) by definition, the tragic hero.