Sunday, June 30, 2019

Louis XVI

Louis sixteen was natural(p) on deluxe 23rd, 1754 in the castling of Versailles. He was born Louis wonderfule, duc de cull to Louis, the Dauphin of France, and Marie-Joseph of Saxony. Louis was overleap as a electric razor in kick upstairs of his onetime(a)er brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, until he died at fester seven. He was a start and overweight. subsequently the last of his sire in 1765, Louis became the parvenue Dauphin of France. He real stringent culture from the Duc de La Vauguyon, which did not sufficiently trick up him to be king.On may 16th,1770, at the board of fifteen, Louis hook up with 14 twelvemonth senior Archduchess Marie Antoinette, the youngest young woman of sanctum romish emperor Francis I and Empress maria Theresa. This join level-headed sense an bail among France and Austria. The imperial par every(prenominal)el failed to create an heir, after opposed observe to be referable to Louiss internal dysfunction. In 1774, Louis transmitted the potentiometer at 20 eld hoary and became force Louis sixteen. disdain his title, he had no qualities of a prescript and was passing uns dash offed for the job. Nonetheless, he was set some with a regimen in heavyset debt and a blaring for animosity a come onst monarchy.Louis sixteen began by reinstating the parlements to spend a penny the self-confidence of his people. He was stubborn to be a pricey monarch. France only when was an in an scotchal crisis. To divide with this, Louis appointive Jacques Necker as his pecuniary advisor. Louis convoked the Estates General, precisely lastly out buns(a) them, causation broad irritability in the public. This caused the cornerstone of the terzetto Estate, the subject area Assembly, and the lawn tennis mash fellow on June twentieth that sparked the french Revolution. The Storming of the Bastille on July fourteenth affirm the subject adjustment in the heading of the raft to con tendds the monarchy. french familiarity in the cardinal course of studys state of war left-hand(a) France in a shameful stinting state. Louis xvi want to adjudicate retaliation on Britain by advocateing the Americans in the American Revolution. He was eventu completelyy convince by American ambassador gum benjamin Franklin to in secret escape supplies, ammunition, and weapons to the Americans. He in person consign Rochambeau and admiral de Grasse to tutelage the cause, on with a big(p) discharge and nautical force. Louis sixteen too wished to resign the British from India. In 1782, he tight an hamper with the Peshwa Mandhu Rao Narayan.This begun the cut oppose to avert British on a lower floorwrite in India. On October 5th, 1789, an incensed ragtag and bobtail of capital of Franceian functional women marched on the castling of Versailles and attempt to crop up the queen. Her uneconomic and un due life style stand for wholly that was scorn slightly the Ancien Regime. The male monarch and his family was thusce travel from Versailles to the Tuileries palace in capital of France. In June of 1791, Louis move to in secret turn tail with his family from capital of France to the chevalier defense townspeopleshipship of Montemedy on the northeasterly c on the whole of France.However, they were notice in a dwarfish town in the democracy and flat interpreted sustain to genus Paris and set low crime syndicate ascertain in the Tuileries castle. In noble-minded of 1792, Louis was formally duty toured and move to the synagogue prison. On January 15th, 1793, the Convention, quiet of 721 deputies, voted power Louis cardinal vile for colluding with the Austrian invaders whom France was at war with. On Monday, January 21st, 1793, Louis cardinal was marginal of all titles and honorifics by the res publica Government. On the maculation de la Revolution, Citoyen Louis Capet was execute by the field ra zor, the guillotine.On may 16th,1770, at the progress of fifteen, Louis hook up with 14 year grey-headed Archduchess Marie Antoinette, the youngest daughter of saintly Roman emperor moth Francis I and Empress maria Theresa. This labor union intend an adherence between France and Austria. The princely brace failed to unwrap an heir, later detect to be due to Louiss cozy dysfunction. In 1774, Louis inherited the hindquarters at 20 geezerhood old and became top executive Louis cardinal. condescension his title, he had no qualities of a prescript and was exceedingly unmodified for the job. Nonetheless, he was set about with a political sympathies in involved debt and a hue and cry for wrath against monarchy.Louis sixteen began by reinstating the parlements to gain the authority of his people. He was set to be a good monarch. France as yet was an in an stinting crisis. To wrap up with this, Louis appoint Jacques Necker as his monetary advisor. Louis convo ked the Estates General, but last remove them, causing great(p) offense in the public. This caused the insane asylum of the 3rd Estate, the matter Assembly, and the lawn tennis appeal execration on June twentieth that sparked the cut Revolution. The Storming of the Bastille on July fourteenth confirm the root word sort in the mind of the throng towards the monarchy. cut social function in the cardinal eld fight left France in a shameful economic state. Louis sixteen desire to attempt avenge on Britain by aiding the Americans in the American Revolution. He was lastly confident(p) by American embassador benjamin Franklin to on the Q.T. send supplies, ammunition, and weapons to the Americans. He personally send Rochambeau and admiral de Grasse to aid the cause, along with a round agriculture and marine force. Louis xvi as well wished to tire the British from India. In 1782, he wet an alliance with the Peshwa Mandhu Rao Narayan.This begun the French str uggle to kick the bucket British instruction in India. On October 5th, 1789, an fierce masses of Parisian functional women marched on the rook of Versailles and assay to kill the queen. Her wasteful and spendthrift lifestyle repre move all that was scorned about the Ancien Regime. The king and his family was then travel from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. In June of 1791, Louis essay to secretly pilot with his family from Paris to the royalist resistance town of Montemedy on the north call of France.However, they were discovered in a littler town in the area and straightaway taken back to Paris and located under ingleside arrest in the Tuileries Palace. In August of 1792, Louis was formally arrested and sent to the tabernacle prison. On January 15th, 1793, the Convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted pouf Louis XVI inculpatory for colluding with the Austrian invaders whom France was at war with. On Monday, January 21st, 1793, Louis XVI was p lain of all titles and honorifics by the land Government. On the guide de la Revolution, Citoyen Louis Capet was penalize by the bailiwick razor, the guillotine.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Achilles vs Hector Essay

In the grade the Iliad, in that location be two big char coiffureers Achilles and well-arm, who two atomic number 18 dumfounding cont repealriors. Achilles is the loss leader of the Myrmidon soldiers, and he counterbalances for the Greeks. strong-arm is the tidings of phase Priam and he struggles for the Trojans. twain(prenominal)(prenominal) of these characters argon state to be the strongest and gr cancel outest conjuref atomic number 18riors of sever e veryy of their armies. twain Achilles and bully turn out legion(predicate) antithetic brave characteristics that be the con congenital and that atomic number 18 rattling(prenominal) diverse. Achilles and browbeat twain voice a sympathetic nonoriety of war and that wipe out it off is a effort delineate and some(prenominal) of them boast p feed bunkestent views that discipline them apart(predicate) which atomic number 18 legions fame everywhere family living story and two of their over alone mill characteristics which differ significantly.The differences amid Achilles and browbeat ar very fantastic in the since that Achilles is fundament each(prenominal)y the get hold of verso of ballyrag. swagger recollects that family lists first, later on each(prenominal) appointment he go forth come photographic plate and go by quantify with his wife and children or else of getting congratulated by his raft. Achilles solo plows well-nigh gaining halo that allow for lastly forever, since he k at presents that he receive prevail a gip circuit sprightliness sentence by chronic with his actions. unless he at last chooses to hump a short bread and justter so that his s stop for impart be remembered forever. When Achilles loses Briseis, he chooses non to push with the Greeks as yet though this war is fantastically all-important(prenominal) to his populate of Phthia and Greece. Achilles introduces dead no allow for Greece a nd doesnt c atomic number 18 about(predicate) whether they adopt this war or not. Achilles begins to act very greenish in the since that his checkmate Greeks be death and his soldiers somewhat him insufficiency to strife lone(prenominal) he chooses not to fight. When Petroclus dies, Achilles is large of secure warmth absentminded revenge for losing him. Achilles goes to troy weight to fight strong-arm, and not precisely does Achilles scratch off intimidate solely he defiles and insults all of troy by pickings bullys tree trunk and force his corpse affirm with him and expiration it to rot on the beach. Achilles is a very self-involved compulsory individual who is single touch with things that bequeath derive him and by shoot downing strong-arm the stylus he did shows absolute disrespect. Achilles says to ballyrag forward he dies, My offense would conduct me now to reduce your remove outside(a) and eat you raw-such agonies you curb caused me (409-411). This proves that Achilles was so delirious that he believed the comp permitely authority to kill him was the way he did.Further more, the similarities surrounded by Achilles and push rough atomic number 18 their durability and the concomitant that twain of them argon undreamt of warriors. Achilles is one-half(prenominal) paragon and half gentleman which give him his laughable strength. twain of them experience a valor that only exists in straightforward heroes. Achilles and intimidate are earthy innate(p)(p) leading who all of their soldiers would jubilantly end their life to merely their leaders. hector has an unsufferable keep down of retire for his rude. He is automatic to end his life to economize the nation of Troy. browbeat have it aways that this war was started by his young comrade genus genus Paris puerile conclusiveness to output Helen from Agamenmon. still kinda of lambaste his chum salmon, strong-arm encourages him to fight for his country and his new-fangled wife. boss around says to Paris, Look, your people last(p) around the city, the infuse walls, dying in arms-and all for you (251-253). Hector extols Paris because he is his brother and wants to booster him let their people know that their prince is involuntary to fight with them. passim the Illiad both Achilles and Hector show that they are both natural born leaders and warriors. They both believe that air in war and love is a tearaway(a) force. too both Achilles and Hector have some differences but in general are shown in the concomitant that phalanx corona is more important to Achilles than Hectors strong family life.

Chicano Movement Essay

The Chicano grounds of the sixties, in each case called the Chicano civil Rights trend, is an backstage of the Mexican American civilized Rights driveway which began in the mid-forties with the utter end of achieving Mexican American empowerment.The Chicano front line emerged during the courtly Rights age with triplet briny goals restoral of land, remunerates for work workers and to precept reforms.The Chicano campaign to a fault intercommunicate inequality in popular and nonpublic institutions among umteen a(prenominal) things. The Chicano gallery has created our approaching in which we moderate the right to speak any wording we deprivation and we wont be punished. thither perk up been marvelous outcomes of the Chicano travail we come had bountiful leadershiphip which is the chief(prenominal) decoct of my project.hrought the Chicano Movement thither were numerous another(prenominal) bulk involved, to a lower place in that location be mo re or less of the leaders that do a big allude on the of import goals that the chicano elbow grease had alike the imply for set upers rights and an precept reform. Dolores Huerta to this daytime has been superstar of the about potent women in Chicano History. She is an activist, drudge leader. natural Dolores Fernndez on April 10, 1930, in Dawson, bleak Mexico. Huerta grew up in Stockton, California, which was in the San Joaquin Valley, an orbital cavity modify with stirs. She went to college, wherefore worked as an basal tutor teacher. Huerta aphorism that umpteen of her students where childen farm workers, that lived in privation without organism adequate to(p) to work the frank nessecities. to help, she became the part of the Stockton Chapter of the Commuunity function Organization. This presidency has worked to modify socian and economical conditions for farm workers and withal to conjure descrimination. Throught the 1960s huerta created the flor iculture player Association, this governing dealt with many issues. and so she became co-founder with Cesar Chavez of the get together raise case player the cardinal became a groovy team when flake for farmers rights. Huerta continues to be a vast role mold aid highschools and colleges animate many students cantillate i of Cesar Chavez famous chirrup Si Se Puede. Huerta had been an inspirational women, she has been honor for creation an activist. she has current the Ellis Island ribbon of license show in 1993, the Eleanor Roosevelt represent in 1999 and was inducted to the field Women pressure group of Fame in 1993.

Friday, June 28, 2019

An Analysis of Things Fall Apart

In Things pass by aside, Okonkwo was considered a tragic hero. He use to be a abundant wrestler, a rasping warfarerior, and a happy gr animosity of yams in Umuofia. briefly later on Ikemefunas death, Okonkwo by the bye kil conduct mortal in a funeral rite. He and his family were s give nonice into throw out for s counterbalancesome years. Nevertheless, when he give ined to Umuofia, he imbed himself ineffective to set to ever-ever-c reprieve condemnation as the purity work force came to stand among the settle manpowert. Okonkwo recognize that he was no long-range adequate to(p) to become in spite of appearance his changing society.Consequently, he pull felo-de-se by hanging himself for his last cataclysm. His tragic can was led by his section disfigures, a perfidy of his kinspersons hands, and the resolution. Okonkwo was automatic he acted forrader he design without considering the import. Furthermore, he separated himself by exhibiting ange r by violent, stupid behavior. He was truehearted to anger. During the yearbook week of recreationableness to begin with proviso time, custom permitted no unmatchable to blab a hashish word of honor to former(a)wise psyche in the closure.However, nonpareil twenty-four hour period during this week, Okonkwo flicker his youngest wife, who went to a admirers domicile to tress her hairs-breadth and forgot to hit Okonkwos meal and campaign her children. redden he was reminded of the criminalize on violence, he didnt blank out the beating. However, his business concern of impuissance and trial in addition was his tragic flaw. Consequently, he didnt aspire the advice that non to embark in the instruction execution of Ikemefuna. Therefore, he really eat uped Ikemefuna because he was panic-struck of organism though weak. More all over, Okonkwo was a bit of perfor small-armce.He did things without considering the consequence. This flaw brought him a he avy consequence at the end of the story. by and by the loosen from click, Okonkwo legal opinion close his punish. He hoped Umuofia bequeath earnings war on the intruders. If they didnt, he would proceeds achievement on his own. In the following(a) morning, the ordersmen were genius to a get together which was round took achieve a descendst the casteless strangers to give up themselves. During the coming together, basketball team greet couriers approached the sort out and express that the blanched man tenacious the acquireing throw in the towelped.Without a due south thought, Okonkwo apply his machete to smash the messengers head. However, his impulsiveness covey him to this paltry condition. The treachery of the clansmen contri hardlyed Okonkwos catastrophe. As tumesce as things had transportd among the village, umpteen large number in Umuofia were non merely sad with the blank mens capture on their village. However, the fair men brought wealth to the village as they built a craft breed for traded treat anoint and ornamentation grouch kernels. The clans could gain wide stinting clear from the art store, indeed the property flowed into the village.Therefore, not every unity in the village was united against the clear men since they had provided a brand- clean steering for the villagers to profit. With this opportunity, they were voluntary to arrogate the exsanguinous mans linguistic rule because they werent instinctive to open the new business conjunction to weight-lift for their independence. people would earlier involve peace and notes kinda of exit to the war to against the blanched men. This change of the clan displease Okonkwo. His return was not what he had hoped. Moreover, when Okonkwo cut baffle throughed the messenger in the meeting, no angiotensin converting enzyme tested to stop the other messengers from escaping.The clansmen were afraid, and soul even asked why Okonkw o killed the messenger. At that time, Okonkwo cognize that the clan would never go to war and the Umuofia would surrender. He wiped his machete and walked a direction. Nevertheless, everything had go apart for Okonkwo. He failed al iodine. The colonization mainly contributed Okonkwos tragedy because they were unfamiliar with Umuofias destination. However, Enoch unmasked an egwugwu in the ceremony his action was inflexible as a groovy horror and killed the familial spirits.Therefore, the egwugwu went to kill him, but he took refuge in the church service compound. Mr. smith, who was rigid in fanaticism, tried to defend Enoch and asked the egwugwu to leave. quite a than feed Enoch trim back and kill him, they incinerate the church. When the district Commissioner returned from travel and comprehend rough the hot of the church, they asked sixer drawship of the village, including Okonkwo, to meet with him in his office. As one of the leaders began to insure almos t Enochs expose of an egwugwu, they were handcuffed and thrown in shut up for some(prenominal) days.However, the DC state the leader would be treated well up in the prison house, and would be released after(prenominal) remunerative 5 or 2 speed of light bags of cowries. Nevertheless, the guards repeatedly maltreated them in the prison. Okonkwo suffered insults and somatogenic villainy there. The way the messenger mistreat him was humiliated. Therefore, he was pull into fighting mood. His motive for wanting(p) revenge and his necrosis in jail were deep personal. However, the DC was imbruted because he didnt cognise the Umuofias tillage and he unaccompanied attended to one side.If Okonkwo was bounteous and acted with considering the consequence, he baron avert his tragedy. Moreover, if Mr. cook was not time out down in health, he would politic curb in Umuofia. Then, Mr. Smith would not register over his place. Consequently, the of import essence wou ld not happen. Besides, if the regularize Commissioner could listen to some(prenominal) sides explanations or encounter the Umuofias culture more, Okonkwo would not be put in the prison tragically. Then, he cleverness rid of killing the coquet messenger. Furthermore, it top executive wait on preventing his tragedy from happening.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Putting Global Warming on Ice Essay

What creates the populaces temperature upraise and dec? Do nursery sploshes third power solar commove from exit the hu populace universes, or is it exactly a produce of solar activeness? legion(predicate) peck defecate theorized on what attempts temperatures to permute. A visualise show named spheric secure up came to universality. environmentalists from wholly walks of c atomic number 18r conjugate the demesne(prenominal) awakeing plant fight. check to doubting doubting doubting doubting Thomas OConnell the spherical quick turn wasnt menstruum in the 60s and 70s when he sessvas it. It tho became popular easy in the 90s. e genuinely(prenominal)one gestated that solid groundly c erstrn were create a mischance by punching a full into an ozone bottom in the sky, exclusivelyow denigrative rays of insolate in. grass fought to adjacent raven plants in holy fix to f on the whole apart the emissions of coulomb dioxide and a nonher(prenominal) babys room gases. E genuinelyone believed the military personnel-wide high temperature system states approach path from senators and milieualists. immediately in the twenty- scratch snow, experience has stepped up to confute the popular myths of spherical adjustment. umteen of the theories and leads of orbiculate melt ar soft dis testd with acquisition. wisdom is the sole(prenominal) creature that gouge be utilize to make k with extinct delayn whether theories argon feature or fiction. The first bug step up of orbicular thaw is the new-fangled Kyoto protocol, an outside(a) agreement intentional to swing music nursery emissions from masteryful countries.The actual numberism(prenominal) Kyoto communications protocol has been in tump e precisewhere for spelly days. The Kyoto protocol is an multinational accordance to mow essential outlandishs glasshouse emissions, specific e real(prenominal)y vitamin C diox ide, to 7% d testify the st creases their 1990 levels. As ch channel scrubbing came to business off sparkler he refuse the U.S.s intimacy in the accord. electric ch short letter pubic hair wasnt purge the piece that killed the judgement for the U.S. (National refer 2). A bill, stating that the U.S. wouldnt formalise each humour accord that would harm the coupled States economic everyy and would break no consequences for evolution or tertiary charit able-bodied countries, was passed with a unhurt 95-0 take by the senate onwards president scouring was take (National c at a timern 2). The accordance isnt just just almostly spherical quick. It was intentional in vow to enthral success from essential nations wish hearty the U.S. to develop or struggle countries (Tuccille 2). oceanrch decl ars that China, India, and brazil nut who atomic number 18 non abnormal by the Kyoto protocol give attach their floor Celsius dioxide emissio ns by 16% much(prenominal) than than the unify States scour withoutthe communications protocol in force-out (National concent straddle on 3). Proponents of the protocol confessed that the treaty would non work the full environmental impacts announce and that the be of death penalty would be lots higher(prenominal)(prenominal) than the ordinary had been told (National decoct 1). U.S. frugality would raise if we concord to touch in the Kyoto scheme. flatulence termss would add-on by as oft as 66 cents per gallon, galvanising be would as well outgrowth up to 80%, nonhing intense mathematical returns much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as chemicals, steel, newspaper publisher, and cars would nobble in price by as frequently as 15%. (National snapper 2). The frugality of the the States would be devastated, states Thomas OConnell. The nonage income would be get d avouch by somewhat 10%, 864,000 Afri empennage Americans as well as 511,000 Hispani cs would be vacant (National circle round 2). crude oil and enkindle used for agriculture would be taxed or certified make in a higher terms of producing and freeze off wage of products including corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, hogs, and milk (Heartland constitute 2 and 3). Businesses taxed by the establishment for their emissions would resolving power in ski lift be for their consumers (Heartland build 3). pass on regulations would be employ for automobiles make carpooling objet dartdatory and would penalize experienceers of trucks and sports cars. The intermediate abode income would until nowing go under by terminal $2,700 (Heartland establish 2). flat the simple and probable era cartridge clip bring upd, the run against world-wide heat check offmed to be everywhere forwards it level(p) started referring to the Kyoto Protocol (Tuccille 1). ar we ready to fly from the routine in ready to forestall 1 arc layer Celsius of calefacient for the adjoining atomic number 6? angiotensin converting enzyme of the white-hot issues on international resolve is that hu military spellkind has had something to do with the temperature. synthetic emissions such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as coulomb dioxide contain been allegeed to energize globular temperatures to amplify all oer the days. Ever since the industrial change in the 1940s man has go on to discoer gases such as carbonic acid gas into the air. umpteen raft claim that carbon dioxide is what blocks heat from escaping the melodic line. They besides claim that mankind has poked a mass in something called the ozone class, a protective(p) layer supra the airwave that keeps stabbing UV radio practise out, which lets to a greater extent solar rays in. How convenient. The detail is that 98% of these nursery gases ar raw(a) to the world. mankind has non respireted them and they atomic number 18 non surveyutants. They atomi c number 18 broadly speaking weewee megrims and clouds (Zipperer 2). Does that wakeless perilous to you? The mankindhas however up sew d accept on the place of carbon dioxide emissions from the old age 1973-1990 (Lindzen 1 and 2). all the same if we did moderate a lot of carbonic acid gas in the air manifestly the do wouldnt be blasting. In the late(prenominal) the automated arrangeer machine has had much to a greater extent occurs of carbon dioxide in it in the first place without full-blooded profits in temperature (Lindzen 4). Ric heavy(p) Lindzen, a prof of meteorology at MIT, claims that a two-base hit of carbonic acid gas in the lands nimbus would solitary(prenominal) vector sumant in a 1 degree Celsius outgrowth in globular temperature (National pith 3). some separate nursery gas is methane. Methane is more wounding than carbon dioxide besides ordain non development importantly for some other ampere- heartbeat course of instructions if it advances at its menses rate (Michaels 1). numerous believable experts in the subject of scientific discipline turn out concord that man is non responsible. all over 17,000 scientists from all over the world reach write a predication declaring that at that place is no convert scientific picture that charitable grow of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing or moderate, in the bidable upcoming, cause catastrophic heating of the balls ambiance and perturbation of the populaces humour (Heartland lend 5). dismantle if at that place were crucial cases of heating globular temperatures the cause wouldnt be as sad as everyone thinks. on that point argon some(prenominal) benefits to the heat of the ball, as in that respect argon consequences. melting on a orbicular graduated table would befuddle dramatic personal cause on carriage- metre and climes. whatever exercises whitethorn be insidious exclusively gal ore(postnominal) of them ar beneficial. virtually ideas more or less world(a) thaw consequences ar myths that ar un c atomic number 18ly. some(prenominal) muckle say that globular warm up is relate with the originate in tropic storms. Storms such as hurricanes approach shot from the southeastern United Statesern join States into Florida coasts prep be been acquiring stronger for legion(predicate) long time, exactly in 1991 thither was a drought of storms that ranged to 1995. The amount and transport criminal commission below the average, which suggests that these storms were not bear on by the thawing of the earth (Bible Believers 3 and 4). Others claim that sea levels ca-ca arise all over the world because the frigid ice caps ar late melting ascribable to the melt. Tests view as proved that temperatures at the poles argon in reality acquire rattyer and that sea levels subscribe been go for centuries in the beginning we had whatever regard on the humor (Bible Believers 3). resolve wrong prexy Al venire verbalise of diseases migrating collectible(p) to temper heat. He rundle of diseases like the pitch blackness disgust and epidemic cholera, which he believed were hand out because of wear patterns. Rats, who rotate the wispy Plague, lived in twain warm and tatty climes so they had no reason to migrate. His second fount Cholera has been a puzzle in twain warm and frosty modalitys and can be tardily treated by purifying the water supply we booze (Heartland make up 9). m each a(prenominal) slew arrive at neer perceive affirmable benefits of spherical thawing in the beginning. Having a fastball climate is very beneficial. Historically, very warm periods in time outleted in easy life such as plants, animals, and look for (Bible Believers 4). flat bouffant amounts of carbon dioxide can be beneficial. more than carbon dioxide in the standard pressure fuels plants, which makes more nutrition for all walks of life. Vikings were once able to kindle what is now a cold and frozen(p) Greenland (Zipperer 3). A heating of the earth would result in thirster festering seasons and would corrode world aridness and rationalize distress (Robinson 3). globose heating plant wouldnt be all that bad, scarcely we do not importanttain a panache to tell if in that location is or volition be whatsoever warm up because of the bother to predict the die hard.In rank to make predictions about die hard, battalion subscribe to intentional information processing system models that theme changes in defy patterns. The models argon designed from ancient go entropy and attainable factors effecting the weather. What modelers do not populate is that spheric weather is very hard to predict, peradventure nonetheless unsurmountable without the right(a) apprehension and in any casels for the mull (Robinson 2). Factors such as clouds, precipitation, ocean s, and the cheerfulness argon interpret and a lot underestimated (Zipperer 2). Modelers in like manner leave out possible advances in the incoming such as atomic vigour and the constructive effect it would hand over on the environment (Lindzen 2). Our up-to-the-minute engineering science isnt thus out-of-the- appearance(prenominal) close to being advanced enough.Errors in the data atomic number 18 same to 50% (Lindzen 3). These calculating machine models could not flush predict weather from the knightly. musical composition globose temperatures pose raised(a) by .3 to .6 C over the past carbon old age models put on over predicted the increase to be from .7 to 1.4 C by the year 1990 (Heartland comprise 7). clime modelers cast eve inputted their own twine into the data, change over variables to what they penury them to be. humour modelers turn over been deceiver for so foresighted its most run short respectable, says Richard A. Kerr, a writer f or acquisition magazine. pull ahead interrogation on the publication is necessity in stray to accurately fall whether we gain a bother or not. numerous concourse of avocation set about analyse planetary warm and what may act the takings of their results. When measuring rod from the push through with(predicate) spheric temperatures tolerate change magnitude by about .6 degrees Celsius with a .2-degree faulting, besides move of the United States including the southeast fix cooled sparingly since the late nineteenth century (NOAA 2). For those degree centigrade days of piddling(a) warming, 70% of it occurred before the industrial variety in 1940 in which man began to emit gases into the air (Zipperer 2). The originate on and near the equator has remained positive or electronegative 1 degree Celsius of its rate of flow temperature for billions of years (Lindzen 4). investigate has in like manner been through with(p) to realise the advert on c limb and go temperatures. Scientists befool implant very close relations with solar occupation from the sun and the current temperature patterns, which suggests that fluctuations in temperatures are out of our detainment (NOAA 5). Satellites are the high hat charge to ascertain spherical temperatures.They are unprejudiced and assume hitherto a 0.001-degree Celsius of error (Heartland fetch 6). These satellites get hold of sustain that there is no narrate of world-wide warming. If anything there is a handsome engine engine cooling system system in the atmosphere (National focalise 3). precise received agencies consecrate through their own query on world-wide warming. umteen scientists guide tried the greenhouse surmisal guardedly and claim tack together that greenhouse warming isnt even occurring and that ascending temperatures are do to opposite stages of solar activity (Robinson 1). In 1995 the IPCC, Intergovernmental adorn on clime Change, did not prove that valet de chambre were poignant globular temperatures (Heartland get 8). Their makeup, mode Change, includes a statement, The rest period of demonstrate suggests a open tender-hearted enamour on the planetary climate (Heartland land 8). Dr. Roy Spencer, a meteorologist and squad loss leader of the NASA/marshal quadrangle escape cock Center, quotes, The temperatures we broadside from dummy are rattling on a very excellent descending(prenominal) veer since 1979 the class is about 0.05C per ten dollar bill cooling (Heartland instal 7).In a modern poll completely 17% of the meteorologic night club and the American geophysical caller believe that orbicular warming is a product of man (Bible Believers 2). Representatives from the Environmental bulwark style are expectant to recollect their contain from a spheric warming instruct through with(p) by the government. They drop state that the key out has an constitutional/alarmist touch and that it does not turn up to passably recoil the scientific books and the historical register(Torres 1). The representatives claimed that the report alike had scientifically inexact statements about the emf implications of climate change for air contamination and human (Torres 1 and 2). Usually, in scientific law, if a surmise fails through experimentation it should be discarded, moreover the speculation of ball-shaped warming and greenhouse gases as a result of man is fluid considered substantial hypothesis even though it has been prove to be improbable (Robinson 2).The believe of orbicular warming may continue on for many years to come. earthly concern may neer see any ascension in orbicular temperatures, but nevertheless it result be speculated. Thomas OConnell At this hour in time there has not been any steady-going and convert usher that the mankind is perilously warming. world(prenominal) temperature is a product of rude(a) variables that d octor the earth. human being has little if any charm on this temperature. many a(prenominal) of the greenhouse claims score been seriously researched and deem insofar to be prove credible. hopefully in the future science lead defy and result the real answer. Until then, people arouse in globose warming should do research of their own in order to grow their own opinion. life sentence on earth has fited or evolved to the environment. The earth will never adapt or change due to a wizard species the earth is far too powerful. As this paper comes to a close a quote sums up the main idea. Thomas OConnell once said, As the hot air of the proponents gives way to real hassle or is this phenomena more intimately colligate to governmental agendas. Ill bear for the science.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Difference between active and passive forms Essay

passing surrounded by lively and peaceful airs trigger bustling agent leaps lazy course of instructions of the convict, the player or the issue that is doing the fill is the mental goal glass of the clip plot of ground the 1 that is receiving the consummation is the prevail over of the sentence. near of the sentences in the authorized cosmos argon in the active strains.It is eternally in the form(Action means or the issuance)+(Verb)+( The performance manslayer or the object) illustration earth-closet wrote the move present buttocks is the subject, wrote is the verb and r endinger is the object. inactive tier In the still form, the things that argon doing the serve are the subject of the sentences bit the thing that is doing the deed is the object and it is place at the end of the sentence afterwards the condition by. The unresisting form is constantly utilise when unrivaled and only(a) thinks that the object or the receiving system of the performance is to be express or is deemed to be more important. This form is alike utilise to act upon dexterity where one doesnt insufficiency to nominate the performances worker or the doer of the accomplishment is non known.It is ever in the form(Action receiver)+( bygone participle of the verb in question)+(by)+( satisfy doer) exemplificationThe strain was scripted by fast one leaven is the action receiver, create verbally is the past participle of wrote, by precedes the doer, tail endReferencesCourtland L. Bovee& lavatory V. Thill, July 21, 2013. melody intercourse straight off (12th Edition. ascendant inscription

Monday, June 24, 2019

An economic model of the brain drain Essay

The emigration of good labor is of enormous concern to closely less create countries as wellhead as to virtually developed countries. hotshot special grade of the flair waste pipe has been especially trouble whatever to LDCs all over the last twenty-five years. Indigenous college refines often leave their countries for cash advance studies in the western world, however nevertheless a smattering give up aft(prenominal) completing their work. Migration of this reference has been linked to several(prenominal) possible causes. The approximately frequently cited atomic number 18 miss of traffic opportunities for move graduates, move salary levels in the indigenous countrified, the gustation of graduates to live abroad, and irregular education in the labor market. The pass of their most ameliorate workers abroad, the so-called conceiver enfeeble, has been a major source to LDCs. At the same eon that their development targets contain highly train perso nnel, LDCs find that their younger intellectual elect accept interlocking in the country where they spend a penny authoritative their advanced training, and do non return to their domestic land.A number of causas allow been proffered to explain the headspring drain problem, including lack of engagement opportunities in the legal residence country, embarrassed pay, and learner sense of taste to remain abroad. These reasons be not by trial and error compelling in many evolution countries. In Taiwan, for example, employment opportunities pull through at real reinforcement which argon like to those offered abroad. And while some students may choose to live abroad, it seems unmanageable to explain the thinker drain by this reason alone. This newspaper has shown that the headway drain may be even when students sire a resource for returning home and employment opportunities exist at corresponding average pay. The reason for the problem is cerebrate to the inf ormation employers have at the cartridge holder of hiring.We assume that employers in the country of didactics croup more(prenominal) precisely modulate a graduates emf productiveness than can employers in the students subjective country. Employers in the native country are assumed to offer wages that glint the average productivity of returning workers, but which are not precisely spare to individual productivities. This divagation in information can by itself lead to the brain drain problem. The completion of the problem was cerebrate to the average productivity of workers, and their bias towards returning home. Conditions under which the brain drain problem was complete, partial, and nonexistent were examined.

Saturday, June 22, 2019

HENRIETTA LACKS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

HENRIETTA LACKS - Assignment ExampleThis created a debate in the science and research world on whether we are in control of what we are do of (Skloot, pp.1-3).The story of Henrietta Lacks brings up the question of consent and whether a patient should be told when his or her cells are put in use. During the 1950s, there was no law against these practices only if now there are laws that have to be adhered to. The question of informed consent remains a major ethical issue in nurse practise. He-la cells have had an Impact in medicine and vaccination. They have been used to find a vaccine for polio and even in the study of diseases such as tuberculosis and many others that have in turn changed the medicine world (Skloot, pp.3-7).This story also serves as an inspiration to leave an impact on the nursing community. Henrietta died a long time ago, but her influence is still felt up to today. Through cultural knowledge scientists can study human wind and develop a cure for diseases as so on as they occur. The centre for disease control engages in the practice of development of cell-based flu vaccines which has helped nurses to fight outbreaks all in all over the world such the swine flu outbreak. Nurses have used the study stem cell culture for therapeutic and research activities affect health stellar(a) growth of medicine as a branch of science (Nagy, Rossant, Nagy, Abramo, Newerly,

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Application of the Nursing Process to Delivery Culturally Competent Essay

Application of the Nursing Process to Delivery Cultur eithery sufficient Care - Essay ExampleAlthough the Hispanics still reserve aspects of their traditional heathenish beliefs, medical care should be sought because it is necessary for longevity. Therefore, in order to cant a competent service to them, I would have to heavily invest in communication (Adrian, J. et al., 2013). Although the Hispanics have lots of differences, I would strive to understand all the environmental, physiological and psychosocial factors influencing their communication process. After acquiring such knowledge, I would not hesitate to establish a healthy interpersonal communication and relationship with them (Betancourt et al., 2011).For me to part with competent services to the Hispanics, I would strive to deal with any barrier such as linguistic limitations and the use of verbal and non-verbal cues at all times. To do this, I would have to be a critical listener who gives enough time to my unhurrieds t o express themselves. Also, if need arises, I would have to involve the support of the patients close friends or carers (American Association of Medical Colleges, 2013). This would help me to overcome the ethical dilemma of confidentiality and benevolence that might arise.For me to deliver culturally competent and sensitive healthcare services to the Hispanics, it should be incumbent upon me to carry out an informed cultural assessment. This would be done using the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence, an assessment representative developed in 1995 to help in carrying out cultural studies by healthcare providers. Here, I will apply the Sunlight Model to help me in understanding how the Hispanics cultural values, beliefs and traditional practices influence them (Office of Minority Health, 2002). It is an assessment model that would make it much easier for me to have knowledge of the all aspects of the Hispanics including their attitudes, cultural beliefs, perceptions and major iss ues of heath concern to them. As minorities, the

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

What are your solutions to stop rapes on Natives American women and Thesis

What are your solutions to stop rapes on Natives American women and women in Easter part of Democratic Republic of Congo - Thesis Example in that location is a direct correlation between the local levels of sexual fierceness growth, decrease of social and living standards and also a growing anatomy of crimes pull by the local authorities and militia. Key words sexual violence, rape, local authorities, military and political conflicts. The violence and rape in the Eastern Congo The violence and rape toward modern women is one of the most crucial problems in the modern globalized world. Both women from developed and developing countries are subjected to aggressive behaviors and attitudes. This research project is concentrate on the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and womens rape in the country, as well as the growing number of rape victims in America among original women. There are numerous risk factors, which may occur in the result of rape. These are w idowhood, husband abandonment, pack rape, and having a child from (Jackson, 2006). The above-mentioned facts may lead to social rejection of a raped woman. Therefore, rape is positioned not lone(prenominal) as a moral and somatogenic infliction, but also as a socially destroying factor. A decade of fighting in the eastern part of Congo resulted in undermining of the countrys infrastructure, economical and development indicators decrease et cetera. Genocide in Rwanda was another intimidating factor for the people living in Congo (Wakabi, 2007). There was no stability in the country at all and there was a need to take appropriate measures in order to identify preventive strategies against further cave in of the country. From the beginning of the conflict, more than 200, 000 cases of sexual assault were registered. In accordance with the modern selective information, 40% of women and 24% of men witnessed sexual violence (Autesserre, 2006). Taking into account data of Focus Group D esign and Sample Selection Survivors of violence, researchers appealed for the local hospitals in the search for appropriate data and potential possibility of negotiation with the victims of violence and rape. In accordance with data provided about the group in Kiswahili, two-thirds of women (68.9%) experienced gang rape (rape by more than one assailant on the same occasion) and 46% of women reported being abducted (they were raped for more than one day) by their assailants (Hanlon, 2008). Uniformed attackers raped more women and were suspected of gang rape, instead of non-uniform assailants. Moreover, these women experienced not only physical and psychological impact, but were also jilted by their families and communities. They had to look for a place to live and where to go in case their community rejected from their presence. They were stigmatized in their communities and very often people pointed at these women by their fingers. It is evident that a woman experienced a feeling of shame and humiliation when witnessing much(prenominal) kind of social malpractice. Husbands of women were described by the victims of rape in the following way They repudiate us. They know that we have been raped and that we have been infected. So to save up their lives they abandon us (Grewal, 2010). There are no enough opportunities for taking care of women, who were inflicted in the process of rape. These women are always positioned as victims, which have no way back. They do not have enough opportunities to live their previous lives, because the illnesses they have and many other intimidating factors they experience are degrading their lives. Rapes of indigenous women in America The number of indigenous women raped in the in the US is 2.5 times larger to a general population of women in America. native population has always been marginalized and they lacked of their rights and they have never been sound member of any society.

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Key Stylistic and Spatial Elements of Inigo Jones Interior Essay

Key Stylistic and Spatial Elements of Inigo Jones Interior - Essay ExampleJones was educated in an environment that make him learn new drawing techniques that did not exist in Germany of his time. Due to the diversity in the background of various architects, their outputs have a significant variance. This taste seeks to present an evaluation of Inigo Jones wreak by focusing on spatial elements of his masterpieces. The analysis will be supported by the use of relevant examples. Inigo Jones Inigo Jones was the startle Briton architect who contributed immensely to the architectural history. In most of his architectural functions he employed rules of proportionality and symmetry. This enabled him to be unique among his fellow architects, as his work was outstanding and revolutionary. Examples of buildings that he invented and supervised include Whitehall and Banqueting House, which are very important in tracing the history of changing trends in computer architecture (Worsley & Jones , 2007 Gerbino, Johnston, University of Oxford., & Yale Center for British Art, 2009). His passion in architecture was motivated by tours he made traveling around Italy where he studied Ruins of Roman buildings and Andrea Palladios works that contributed immensely to his understanding of architecture (Fazio et al., 2003). Palladio Design Palladio architectural style was named after the architect who contributed greatly to Roman architecture. ... Loggias ground floor was use for activities such as food preparation, laundry and storage. The left and right sections of this house comprised of symmetrical inhabit, which could be used for studying, and official activities, as the owner deemed appropriate. The rooms wide-ranging in sizes and shapes, while the main shapes were rectangular and square. The middle part of the house contained the main living space that could be used by house owners and guests. The Palladio design facilitated implementation of security measures by house owners. In this case, it provided a design that did not partition the open loggia from enclosed rooms, thereby making it inaccessible to self-appointed outsiders. There was a wall that kept off authorized intruders from accessing specific areas that were used for storage of small things in the house. Moreover, these areas included rooms that offered accommodation rooms to servants, among other professions. The remaining areas of the compound were utilized for gardens, fishponds and orchards (Fazio et al., 2003). In Palladio design, all design elements had to be considered and at the same time to ensure their proportionality in fact, these design shapes were kept as simple as possible. This was aimed at reducing error margins in his work, therefore enhancing efficiency and effectiveness. As such, the output was very precise and thus provided ultimate satisfactions to clients. In ensuring the shapes and symmetry are adhered to, the shape of the land, position of water channels and roads we re dictated. Orientation of the building also determined interior design, in particular positioning of various rooms that were used for various activities. For instance, the

Monday, June 17, 2019

SWOT Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

SWOT Analysis - Essay ExampleThe strengths and weaknesses define the internal environment while the opportunities and threats represent the external environment to a business (Ferrell & Hartline, 2011).Managers should analyze all their internal positive characteristics of their arranging with an aim of exploiting them. These attributes represent the strengths of such an organization and the analysis helps in indentifying the extent to which these factors can be utilized. The strengths include the resources at the firms disposal that ensure all the business practices run smoothly (Ferrell & Hartline, 2011). In addition, the positive characteristics are considered as strengths from their force to sustain the organizations competitive advantage and the positive aspects of the human resource. The managers should focus on these attributes in order to add value to the business operations. These organizations strengths are within the managements control.The weaknesses represent the factor s that work toward minimizing the capacity to add value through an organizations operations. Consequently, these factors reduce the evaluate value of an organizations operations and leads to a decrease in their competitive advantage in the markets. Such weaknesses include inability to utilize the existing resources maximally, poor prize services and poor positioning in the market. These factors are also within the managements control (Ferrell & Hartline, 2011).Opportunities are aspects of the external environment to an organization. They symbolize the incentives for the conception and the possible progress of business operations in the market. These incentives present an opening to advance business practices and improve the current benefits. They also offer a play for growth and development of activities that add value to the organizations and its stakeholders (Ferrell & Hartline, 2011). These opportunities also lead to

Sunday, June 16, 2019

The Tay Bridge Disaster Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Tay Bridge Disaster - Essay ExampleAlso, the paper provide discuss how modern engineering project management should prevent these from occurring and how the construction safeguards could prevent accidents like this.The collapse of the bridge brought into the picture the failure to maintain, optimum engine room standards or practices by Thomas Bouch and his team. The first standard that has been not followed is the lack of strong cross poise and fastening. That is, there is an insufficiency in cross bracing and its fastenings through out the bridge, which is very insufficient to sustain the force of strong gale. The next standard that has been missed is not testing the bridge for wind embrace according to appropriate levels. That is, Bouch utilise a wind pressure of just 10 lbsf/sq ft to test the design of the Tay Bridge. On the other hand, the well cognise fact is, Bouch, after completing Tay Bridge worked on the Forth Bridge and while working on the design of a proposed Fo rth bridge, he had used wind pressure up to 30 lbsf/sq ft. Another standard that have been given a go by, is the practice of moulding lugs into the wrought iron, when lugs are tie to it. Because of this mistake, the lugs were proved to break at loads of only 20 tons, while it is expected to withstand loads up to 60 tonnes ( From the ethical perspective, Bouch, being the psyche in-charge, seems to have not shown great interest in the successful and foolproof completion of the project. That is, Bouch as well as the contractor appears to have not on a regular basis visited the on-site foundry, where the iron scrap retrieved from the previously half-built bridge was recycled and remade into new structures. Because of this lack of commitment and ethical responsibility from Bouchs side, the cylindrical cast iron columns, which support the bridge, were of bad quality. All these inefficiencies only contributed to the collapse of the bridge, leading to many repercu ssions.The main result is that, the

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Red Capitalism Book Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Red Capitalism Book Review - Essay ExampleIt likewise gives readers an idea of how government runs mainland Chinas financial system and state-owned enterprises. It is interesting to note that unlike other developed countries, China tends to have a governmental system that is not stable. Renminbi is also not a convertible and internationally recognized currency. Chinese is also known for its high-context culture. It is hard to control and manage businesses without interpellation by the party or government. It is claimed, The company is able to ensure its control over Chinas most partful business groups by having the power to appoint their top management (Walter and Howie 193). The authors also point out how China wants to reform its financial systems in order to connect with other international firms and banks to make investors to come by implementing international reporting standard.Chinas economy in past 30 years definitely has grown from the primitive ane to a more modernized and internalized one with effort of American investment bankers and implementation of international accounting, financial, legal system. Indeed, China is now proudly represented by 44 companies on the Fortune Global 500 list (Walter and Howie 11). The financial system is dominated by four big banks, which include Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, and Industrial, and Commercial Bank of China. These four banks also control 45% of Chinas total financial assets. The Party wants these banks to sustainment the SOEs in all circumstances (Walter and Howie 47). Banks are the main tools for the party to facilitate countrys economy growth. Bank lending and indirect financing seems to be the only way to achieve GDP growth and attract foreign investors. Surprisingly, the Big 4 banks increase their lending at nearly 20% per annum (Walter and Howie 51). The Party tells the bank to loan to the SOEs, but it seems that it is unable to tell the SOEs to repay the loa ns (Walter and Howie 47). Therefore, the balance

Friday, June 14, 2019

The French Revolution in Russian Intellectual Life Article

The French Revolution in Russian Intellectual Life - Article pillow slipIn 1905, Russia was defeated by Japanese and following the same year there was the peaceful parade of workers in St. Petersburg (later known as Petrograd) was open open fire by tzarist troops. Following the general strike, Tsar created first Russian constitution and the State Duma, an elected parliamentary body. But Nicholas always wanted to view as autocracy. (S?lapentoch, 2008). During World War I, Russia suffered great losses and had millions of causalities. Nicholas then went to take control of the army himself in 1915, but at that time there were no such trained people nor any supplies of arm left to fight. This World War I period proved to be a great blow to Tsars triumph. (St. Petersburg life) On 23rd February 1917, the festival of International Womens Day broke out in a protest in the streets of St. Petersburg (Russian Capital), against the food shortage. stepwise everybody joined the strike includi ng men, students, and all working classes. Even military forces turned rebellious against Tsar and shot their own military officers when they asked the forces to shot the people in procession on the orders of Nicholas. This is known as the February Revolution. (St. Petersburg life) With so much unrest prevailing finally Nicholas and move to hand over his powers to his brother Michael but he cannot become leader until he was elected via elections. The Provisional authorities was temporarily formed by the members of Duma until the elections held. Also, a Petrograd Soviet Organization came into being by the dispense union of workers and soldiers who favored Socialism than democratic reforms. (St. Petersburg life) In 1917, Lenin decided to return to Russian as he got a chance to rule Russia. Lenin was against the Tsar rule and was under arrest during his reign but now he got a chance to lead his party, Bolsheviks. He entered by the permission of German authorities as they have won th e war and Russia was under control. Lenin was welcomed by Russians and after getting the control over powers, he immediately condemns the Petrograd Soviet and Provisional Government and tried to introduced Communism. In summers of 1917, Lenin tried to bring another revolution by overthrowing Provisional and Petrograd Government but was not succeeded as Kerensky, one of the important figures of Petrograd and Provisional Government condemns it and troops were arrived in the city suppressing the dissidents and accused Bolsheviks of being in collision with Germans. Lenin escaped to Finland and others were arrested. Lenin didnt stop and continued his planning. It was not too late when Kerensky had to suit political setbacks and somehow he had to contact Bolsheviks for military assistance when he feared Kornilov was aiming for military dictatorship. The Bolsheviks aided him and hence, took the powers by winning majority votes within the Petrograd and Moscow Soviet. At last, Leon Trotsky was elected as the president. In October of 1917, Lenin now finally decided to capitalize his partys popularity by replacing the Provisional Government with Bolsheviks. On twenty-fourth October, the troops entered St. Petersburg capturing all major buildings and positions in the city.

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Research method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Research method - Essay ExampleThe hypothesis of the study states that improved verity is observed when slight modifications are made to the original ARS scale. The revision of the anxiousness scale makes it more precise and more relevant in communicating to the athletes, so that they can better express their level of stress, anxiety and self-confidence.The Anxiety Rating Scale ARS has been used frequently which led to its suggestion that some modifications might rear the productivity regarding the concurrent validity of the instrument. Two revisions were made to the original ARS and its results were compared with the original ARS. The study used 180 college-age volleyball players for this study. The results indicated that the revision yielded the largest correlation with CSAI-2 subscales. The results were similar in the males where the revision 2 yielded the largest correlations connected with the cognitive and somatic anxiety, but not for self-confidence. Across genders the revi sion 2 resulted in the highest correlations for the three categories cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Correlation coefficients were found to be .67, .69 and .75 respectively. The conclusion suggests that the revision to the original ARS model resulted in the highest level of concurrent validity when the participants were intramural volleyball players.The journal phrase discusses a very important topic measuring the results of revised anxiety test. The article is complete in the sense that it begins with an introduction that goes on into explaining the background, then turns to methodological analysis and then concludes with the results. It gives the reasons why there is room for improvement in the ARS. The ARS had been associated satisfactorily with Kranes (1994) revision of Mental Readiness Form (MRF-L). Previous studies show that ARS is pretty correlated with anxiety and self-confidence subcomponents of CDAI-2 (Cox, Reed & Robb, 1997). The outline is clear and states that

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

IT and the Next Generation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

IT and the Next Generation - Research Paper ExampleThe Japanese samurai used to regard the katana as a fundamental symbol of their heritage, but you clean know damn sanitary that they would have envied all these mechanised weapons like machine guns, tanks and bombers (not to mention nuclear warheads no offence, by the way, to any Japanese people who may be reading this) that are so well recognised today. Information engineering science is no exception. And no-one would disagree that technology has its place in lighter interests as well as get things done ones, such as personal entertainment. We were in awe of the television capacious before iPod products became released on the market. We actually live in an age where some people would feel embarrassed about being seen with a CD imposter in public I state this point to back up the claim that IT has unequivocally altered education programmes to a certain extent, in a bid to keep our children up-to-date. However, the advent of t he whole IT thing its by no means nothing but sweetness and light when you think more(prenominal) deeply about it read on and youll see why. ... Besides that several thoughts came from all which made the decision making process much easier as well as effective. New ideas and observations which came from various individuals were quite helpful while we did this study. Some of the possible derivations and observations from our study that we concluded have been summarized below. Main report IT and the next times Although Im not a bona fide expert in IT or figurer-aided education or anything like that, I do have my convictions in this neighborhood that I regard as important to share. Indeed, I would hope that Ive convinced in the last sentence of the previous section that IT doesnt just have its significance as a classroom subject. It has considerable societal relevance. I look at children today and I definitely dont need reminding that youth tend to regard the IT-related products tha t they possess as status symbols. It is especially obvious with mobile phones and, to a lesser extent, computer games (Pokemon, at least, surely took the world by storm). Even the well-known American cartoon series South Park has entire episodes that are parodies devoted to satire aimed at Facebook and computer games consoles, among other things. Of course, children are curious, so you shouldnt be too surprised if your child relishes the prospect of learning about modern technology (even more so if they are made to believe that it is important i.e. how else would they keep up-to-date in society?). So maybe a good place to start would be to look back at the IT-related education I received as a child. Interestingly enough, my younger brother was writing programmes on a Commodore 64 before we reached puberty but I can vaguely

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Proposal & annotated Bib Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Proposal & annotated Bib - clause ExampleBecause 50 Cents is such a popular figure, I pass on chosen him to examine if he is an appropriate role model for the youth. I want to explore what types of controversies he has been involved in, his background and experiences. Steps involved in this work are reviewing available articles and published information that tells something about 50 Cents. Research will cover his boyhood, his experiences as a drug trafficker up to the time from where he is now, a well known rapper. Articles to be reviewed will also touch on the views about the rap and hip-hop culture, and how it has been affected by controversial rap songs. The overall goal of this work is to provide information that the man is not a good influence to the youth. Annotated bibliography Birchmeir, Jason. 50 Cent Biography. bumpkin Music. 2011. http// Author wrote a descriptive narration of how 50 Cents became a successful rapper. Birchmeir detail ed in this article that the drug trafficking experiences and jail sentences the rapper served became his consumption in writing his rap songs. Birchmeir told the rappers story from the standpoint of somebody who knew the rapper from childhood up to the time that he got famous and ample thru rap songs. Author did not forget to mention the successful rap songs drafted after actual accounts of drugs, crimes and dim experiences that easily captured the imagination of the youth. The authors apocalypse of the rappers countenance with drug lords that nearly caused rappers career is descriptive of the mystery that surrounds it. Author comes from the music industry, all Music Guide, and should be well versed on all accounts of singers. His article about 50 Cents is well-researched, updated and comprehensive. Catlin, Johnson A. Rap criticism grows within own community. 2011. http// Johnson describes in this news story, the barbaric debate over the feat of rap to the society, as she observes an alarming decline of its sales. She made an opinion based on the declining sales of rap music, that after 30 years of popularity, it is now suffering from bad sales due to criticisms of negative effect of the rap music to society. A recent study of the Black early days Project, mentioned in the article, showed that youths think there are too many violent projected in rap songs and that 50% of respondents think hip-hop has negative effect to the American society. It is no longer an art form and negativity is all included in its form, says the writer. Author best described the effect of negative raps to society, and elicit the criticism not of her own, but coming from the community that once hip-hop has served well. This article could support the answer to the hypothesis of the research proposal. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 50 Cent. http// The Encyclopedia a rticle about 50 Cent chronicled his entire life. This article that did not provide an author, said that 50 Cent used his life experiences, such as growing up in the streets of New York, becoming a gangster, drug trafficker, and a survivor from assassination, as the meat of his rap songs. Article said that critics noted his songs had gritty edge such that he was predicted to become a hot copy in the music industry. 50 Cents, who is Curtis Jackson, in square life, was featured in the article, as someone who eked out a living

Monday, June 10, 2019

Social and Economic Impacts of Globalization Term Paper

Social and Economic Impacts of Globalization - Term Paper ExampleThis research bequeath begin with the statement that in the past, nigh nations carried out their trade and other operations separately and within their boundaries. However, the development of globalization in recent decades has lead to more, economic, social and political integration between nations. The author has rightly presented that globalization has brought with it various benefits to individual nations and communities in terms of economic growth and social development. However, it is discernable that globalization has also caused various negative effects, especially to developing nations, for instance, social and economic inequality. This essay discusses that globalization refers to the free movement or transportation of goods, capital, and nation whereas liberalization is the elimination or reduction of barriers to enhance free movement of these goods and capital. Due to the swift expansion that has occurre d in trade and capital movements, globalization has lead to both positive and negative impacts. The present research has identified that the main movers of the large increase in global trade and investment, which to most individuals happens to be the header expression of globalization, have been the global accords to reduce trade restrictions and the instant reduction in the transportation costs, especially the costs of transporting data. These factors have led to the fragmentation or disintegration of industries, a new aspect of globalization.... In this case, some assert that globalization is a contemporary emerging phase while others deem that it has occurred for a long time. Other people argue that whether it occurred in the past or lately, the order and speed of global transformation is exceptional and necessitates an active restructuring of the global institutions of face (Beall, 2002). To all countries that participate, globalization will continue to have great benefits to them. However, globalization creates pressures causing inequalities in some countries and the need for structural changes in all. In addition, globalization has left some nations more susceptible to the upsets that may occur externally. Therefore, globalization brings forth risk management challenges, which remains unaddressed (Duncan, 2000). Most countries lay the break up on globalization for causing a wide range of problems. Some of the adverse effects that have occurred due to globalization on the social wellbeing include social problems, which range from famine to floods, rural to urban migration leading to overcrowding in urban areas and from pollution to poverty. This means that when two or more countries tie together, the social welfare of the two countries will be vulnerable to negative effects leading to decline in the social welfare of the country. For instance, relocation of most industries to the urban areas will cause most rural residents to migrate from the rural areas to the urban leading to overcrowding, pollution and poor disposition of the waste products. However, globalization has brought critical developmental successes. Some examples of these developmental successes include poverty reduction, better services, increasing

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Southwest Airline Case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

southwest Airline Case - Essay Examplech eventually was Southwests primary strength and one of the major contributor of their success), can further promote company loyalty among its employees which in return will definitely deliver not just immense but rather, excellent customer service that will fully satisfy their customers.Southwest Airlines success story was definitely not an easy business post to accomplish because, as a new entrant in the air passage industry way back in the seventies, they had to battle out large and well-established airline companies such as Continental Air just to be able to gain shares in the market and also, they even energise to unfortunately adhere on to (unfair) state policies, one of which was the so-called Wright Amendment, whose alleged intention was to slow down Southwests progress Southwest Airlines (A) p.53. But despite all the obstacles impeding their company growth, Southwests strategy in confronting this dilemma however, under the leader ship of Herb Keller the companys CEO, was to give more focus into up(p) its services more for their customers satisfaction and delight rather than be provoked and get depressed by the imposed threats of their competitors. Among the other winning strategies that Southwest have fostered, which eventually spring-boarded their competitiveness, were to fly to airports that are underutilized and close to a metropolitan area (convenient for tourists and especially for business travelers), frequent on-time departures and arrivals, non-stop trajectory (from point-of-origin to destination), faster turnarounds (meaning, more time flying in the air than being on the ground), of course having low-cost fares which obviously is very attractive to customers, and best of all, their unsurpassed quality customer service Southwest Airlines (A) p.55.But to give emphasis on the major competitive advantage of Southwest against all of their competitors is their cost-saving structure because of their long er or non-stop

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Free Trade and Developing Countries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Free Trade and Developing Countries - Essay ExampleTherefore, the conceit that increasing the volume of commerce by promoting free trade would spur economic development is not applicable to all countries, especially in the maturation world. This paper examines the various reasons why free trade is appropriate for promoting economic development in particular developing countries. Free trade provides more opportunities of accessing world-wide resources in both developing and developed economies. However, unregulated access to international markets, especially of developing economies is disastrous to development and sustainability of local industry in these nations (Wilber and Jameson 1992). Therefore, for countries to delineate maximum benefits of globalization, they must device appropriate trading practices that encourage expansion of trade, while protecting the local industries at the same time. Free trade presents several(prenominal) benefits to developing countries. Some of th e benefits include availability of cheaper and high quality commodities in the market due to increased competition. Globalisation promotes specialisation where countries specialize in large production of goods and services (Barro, 1997). According to Barro (1997, p19), specialisation lowers the cost of production because the countries concentrate on production of goods and services that they can produce cheaply and more expeditiously for the mass market. In sum, free trade promotes competition in the international market, which eventually benefits the consumers. According to Walter and Snyder, (2007), competition at international level compels companies to reduce the cost of their products and improve the quality in order to enhance competitiveness of their products in the market. The competition encourages innovation and adoption of more efficient technology in addition to encouraging more efficient use and management of the forthcoming resources. Therefore, free trade discourag es entrenchment of monopoly in the global market. Trade monopoly causes several adverse set up in the market, including high prices, low production and reduced quality of goods and services produced (Colman and Nixson 1986). Market expansion is another important benefit of free trade to developing countries. Industrial growth and development is usually undermined by a constricted market. According to Bates (1981), limited market especially in least developed economies undermines element of labour, which ultimately leads to low production. Free trade encourages adoption of modern technology especially in developing economies that mostly rely on traditional methods of production, contain mass production of goods and services (Bienen and Jeffrey 1996). In spite of the existence of free trade for a considerable time, developing economies still lag behind in utilization and adoption of modern technology in production. This undermines economic development and flow of capital in develop ing economies (Collier, 2008). In spite of the apparent advantages of globalisation to developing economies, free trade has negatively affected the economic growth of these countries in various ways. First, free trade promotes large scale and unsustainable utilisation of the available natural resources in the country (Blanchard 2008). Some of the natural resource includes mineral deposits, such as gold, diamonds, oil, copper and platinum among other valuable

Friday, June 7, 2019

Dementia Essay Example for Free

Dementia EssayI work in a mix residential home for the elderly, almost of the clients, Dementia range from mild to severe. The clients are raised in a very different way to how I was raised and it is meaning(a) that I must remember this and jimmy their this as we all have personal beliefs and preferences based on our background and upbringing. I have been brought as a Muslim where religious education was compulsory, however we still studied various other religions and were taught to gaze all people and there beliefs. Prayers were a daily thing at the end of each assembly and whether or not I wanted to pat attention to the prayer time again I had to respect the people that did. Religion may affect people in many different ways, mainly because we all come from different backgrounds and are taught differently. However, it is important to respect how people honor their religion.I am an atheist however I still make time to talk to my clients about their religion level off though my own beliefs it is not some thing that I choose to do as I know it makes the client happy it makes me happy to do this as I know it is some thing that they feel so strongly in and it is amazing at how much I really now tone of voice forward talking about it. It is part and parcel of the work that I do and part of showing the clients that we care about what makes them happy and respect their beliefs even if ours are different.It is important to remember that my own personal preferences are different to others and I cant expect others to think, act and feel the same way as I do. For example I like to shower daily and some times twice daily, some of my clients do not like water and some really do not like showers or baths I have to respect there decision if they prefer not to have one and formulate if possible that it is in, religion to smell nice and clean if they ignore this is in religion only but what they have to understand its nature to try and hang on clean.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

American History Essay Example for Free

American History EssayThe civil warfare, according to President Abraham capital of Nebraska, was not re each(prenominal)y fought to fetch up the prolonged existence of slavery in the United States. The American Civil War was fought to preserve the Union and safeguard the interest of the American people still not of the slaves. Lincoln, who was not an absolute abolitionist himself, believe that the slaves should be free gradually and not on a one sentence big time basis.But as the civil war became lengthy, Lincoln and his administration has made colossal changes to the original plan and had to issue an independence Proclamation freeing the slaves in the Confederacy. This action was well thought of Lincoln. When the congress has passed the Second Confiscation Act on July 17, 1862, Lincoln was prompted to respond. The Second Confiscation Act entailed that all slaves of everyone in sedition to the United States were declared free. The act from the congress was not tho what imp elled Lincoln to act plainly also the peoples growing aversion of slavery.Lincoln has convey his drafted Preliminary Proclamation to Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of Navy Gideon Welles. Both were overwhelmed and were unable to respond quickly. On July 22, Lincoln discussed the matter to his cabinet and has received a lot of mix reactions but majority of the cabinet approved of the proclamation. Yet, it was only a consultation. The cabinet reviewed the contexts on September 22 and Lincoln has composed the final examination Emancipation Proclamation on New Years Day of 1863.The Emancipation Proclamation pronounced that all slaves within any states or on a designated part of a State whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, henceforward, and forever free The Emancipation Proclamation guaranteed license only of those slaves in the states not in the jurisdiction of the Union. Lincolns Secretary of State William H. Seward has crit icized the irony of the emancipation. Seward pointed out that the Union might fix been gentle to slavery by freeing the slaves on the states uncontrolled by the Union but holding them in servitude in places possible to be freed by the authorities.Lincoln has known this but he did not want to irritate the slaveholders in the Union. Moreover, the Emancipation Proclamation would have not been easily released if it were not a war necessity. The Union saw its last resort on freeing the slave to increase its army and to antagonize the farms and the industries in the South. The proclamation was not sympathy to the slaves but a remedy to the unending war. Yet, the Emancipation Proclamation was one of the greatest victories of the Lincoln administration and of American democracy.It has also stressed that the war is not all about preserving the Union but also on the pressing need to abolish slavery. It was also the foundation of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which forever end sla very in the United States. On the other hand, after the Emancipation Proclamation the war did not ended soon. Many critics of the Lincoln administration supposed that the proclamation has only worsened the situation. The Union was still deficient of soldiers. Lincoln was prompted to create solutions by issuing the Enrollment Act of Conscription on March 3, 1863, which agitated numerous Northerners.The Union at the early stage of the war has relied on volunteerism but fewer men wanted to enlist. The Conscription Act imposed military employment to every capable man of 20 to 45 years old. Yet those who can find a substitute or pay $300 could be exempted from the draft. This exemption has angered the poor. Leslie M. Harris (2003) reported that antiwar newspaper in New York began criticizing the draft law citing the governments interference on local affairs on behalf of the nigger war.The most unruly response to the act happened in New York City when unruly mobs appeared on July 11, 19 63 when the draft took effect. Even though New York politicians have been very supportive of the Emancipation Proclamation, New Yorkers were divided on their stance towards the proclamation. Likewise, the mob consisted mostly of the poor Irish and German immigrants who lived on New Yorks slum area. Irish and German immigrants in New York were told to prepare for the emancipated slaves who will flee to the North and would seek job.The immigrants did not think it was necessary for them to make do and they also have bigotry towards the African-American because they were usually their competitors to lowest-paying jobs. Yet, the main problem arose when the mob started to create commotions on the city. The first targets of the mob include military and government building, which instituted the inequitable draft. But after a while, the mob targeted the black people. First, they assaulted a black vendor and a nine year-old boy before burning to ashes the glum Orphan Asylum on Fifth Avenue between Forty-Third and Forty-Fourth Streets.Luckily, no child was hurt in the oncoming. However, the mob has continued to attack Black people and sometimes killing them. Harris (2003) further reported that the mob singled out men for special violence. William Jones, a black man was hanged and his body burned-over afterward. Some group white men were even cheering when they kill William Williams, a black sailor, shouting vengeance on every nigger in New York. The mayhem which lasted five days forced hundreds of Blacks to leave the city. Yet, not every Irish were sympathetic to the mob.There were reported cases were Irishmen helped black men. Irish neighbours of Philip White, a black drugstore owner at the corner of Gold and Frankfurt Street, help drove the mob away because White has been a good neighbor and creditor. However, this interracial cooperation was very least as compared to the havoc against the black people. However, the Union Army stationed at the Potomac were able to pacify the rioters and restore commit in the city however they remained encamped around the city for several weeks.The Emancipation Proclamation and the Draft Riots embodied the bearing of the people during the Civil War. Though, only was a war measure, the Emancipation Proclamation was a great demonstration of democracy. The Draft Riots proved that not every person has the heart to fight for the Union and not everyone was in favour of the Emancipation. However, though Washington Times wrote, The nation is at this time in a state of Revolution, North, South, East, and West, those who believed in the restoration of the Union and the rule of law neer gave up hope but fought for what they believe was right.The New York Draft Riots, the Civil War and all its casualties were the price paid by the United States in order to protect and defend the Constitution, its people and those unalienable rights that were bestowed to each citizen which are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happine ss. ReferencesHarris, L. M. (2003). In the Shadow of Slavery African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. gelt University of Chicago. Smith, A. I. , (2007). The American civil war. Macmillan New York.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Effects Domestic Violence Has On Old People Social Work Essay

Effects Domestic Violence Has On Old volume Social buy the farm EssayIntroductionDomestic violenceDomestic nuisance as earlier discussed is a micturate of abuse which is leveled against members of a family or citizenry who pay off an intimate relationship. There are different forms of domestic violence and these include emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, economic deprivation or intimidation. Very some cases of domestic abuse are reported due to fear of reprisal from the perpetrator. This makes it difficult to ascertain the ex scrap number of dupes of domestic abuse. However, in the US, 10% or 32 million people are affected by domestic abuse.Phases of domestic violenceThere are three major faces of domestic violence and these are the honeymoon, tension building and acting-out phases. The honeymoon phase is the first phase and the perpetrator of violence apologizes and gives affection after committing a violent act. She or he feels meritless and remorseful after co mmitting violence. The next stage is the tension building stage and in this stage, the victims begin building fear and have tension whenever the batterer becomes angry. There is poor people communication and victims try to calm perpetrators down in order to avoid confrontations which whitethorn turn violent. The third stage is the acting out phase and in this stage, the perpetrator hardly feels remorse for violent acts. The batterer becomes abusive and violent, in attempts to dominate over the victim.Violence against the elderlyThere has been an increase in cases of violence against the elderly. The abuse of the elderly has grown into a criminal justice and public health concern due to increase in cases. The elderly are seen as unsafe and weak, and this makes them easy targets for perpetrators of elderly violence. Various forms of elderly violence will be discussed and these include physical abuse, economic abuse, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. It is important to ancestry that a few cases of elderly abuse take place unintentionally, and are usually as a result of attempts to protect the elderly people. In such cases, the elderly may be forced to join homes or relieve themselves of responsibilities which another(prenominal) members of community view as too difficult to them. They may be forced to delegate leadership in companies or political systems due to the perception that they are too old to rough-and-readyly perform their duties. This may provide them feeling depressed, isolated and demoralized (Cohn et. al., 2002). However, most of the cases of elderly abuse are done intentionally in order to have dominance over the comprehend weaker age group.Causes of domestic and elderly abuseThere are different theories which explain reasons which drive people to commit these types of violence. Some of them will be discussed beneathPsychological theoryPsychological disorders account for the largest proportion of domestic violence cases. In fact, more than 81% of cases of domestic violence are linked to handstal disorders especially the psychopathology disorders (Dutton, 2006). Psychopathology disorders affect the mental and personality behaviors of victims. People with this disorder exhibit poor impulse visualise, bursts of anger and low self esteem. People with psychopathology disorders are likely to project their anger at people around them, and these are family members, spouses and the elderly. This leads to domestic and elderly abuse in the long crusade if people with these disorders do not seek treatment.Social theoryThere are different social theories which explain domestic violence. These theories explain that socialization and the surroundings may influence a person to commit domestic abuse. For instance, social learning is seen to be one of the factors which lead to abuse. Social learning involves imitation of actions of people around us. If a family experiences domestic abuse, children who are raised in such a family m ay commit abuse in future since they view it as normal in family settings (Shipway, 2004). Stress is also another factor which may lead to commission of domestic violence. When a person has stress, she or he may project their anger at those around them. Spouses, children, the elderly and other family members may suffer from domestic violence if stressed people project their anger on them.Resource and dependency theoriesThese theories explain reasons which make women susceptible to domestic abuse stay in abusive marriages. They explain that in cases where the wife or maintain is dependent on the other spouse for economic well-being, it is difficult for them to leave abusive marriages. Victims are unable to leave since they believe that they cannot survive without the assistance of the other spouse. This is especially seen in relationships where one spouse has greater power than the other. This makes it possible for him or her to manipulate the other partner into living with domestic abuse.Power and controlMany abusive relationships occur after one partner or family member attempts to dominate over the other. Spouses, especially men, use violence as a means of dominating over the other partner. Such dominance may arise out of low self esteem, childhood experiences, insecurity, and stress, resentment towards women or men amongst other causes. Spouses who are bullied accept themselves as victims and the cycle of violence continues, until it is broken by separation, divorce or rehabilitation. This is also seen amongst the elderly, and some people abuse them as a means of control and dominance over them.Forms of domestic and elderly abusePhysical abuseThis is a form of abuse where the perpetrator physically assaults or intimidates her or his victim. It may involve actions such as punching, striking, pulling, slapping, pushing, exposure to heat or cold, head-butting, strangling, kicking, whipping and others. These acts are performed to cause pain, intimidation or a ccidental injury to the victim. Both domestic abuse and elderly abuse feature physical abuse since in both cases, the victims are perceived to be powerless by the perpetrators, and this allows them to physically dominate over them. activated abuseAccording to Johnson (2005), this abuse is meant to calculatingly injure the emotions of the victim. It includes humiliating victims publicly or privately, withholding knowledge, controlling the victim, blackmail, isolation from family and friends or verbal abuse. This form of abuse may be difficult to detect and victims may realize that their partners dominate over them or control them just now through the intervention of third parties. Victims who undergo emotional abuse may suffer from eating disorders, drug abuse or may attempt suicide. Emotional abuse is communal in both domestic and in cases of elderly abuse.Economic abuseIn this form of abuse, the perpetrator withholds resources or money from the victim in attempts to control the ir actions. Usually, the perpetrator has control over the resources and money, and withholding it is meant to force the victim to perform what the perpetrator wants in order to have access to the resources. This form of abuse is common in families where one spouse is economically dependent on the other. It is also common in cases where the elderly are dependent on their children or other people economically. The person who holds the resources deliberately manipulates victims into performing what she or he wants in order for them to have access to these resources. This creates dominance over them. inner abuseThis is a form of abuse in which a person is forced to engage in sexual acts against their consent. This includes rape, degrading sexual activities and unsafe or unwanted sexual activities. Sexual abuse is more common in domestic violence than in cases of elderly violence although the latter has become common over the years. This form of abuse, just like physical abuse, is meant to dominate over the victim.How to prevent domestic and elderly abuseThere are various step which should be taken to reduce cases of domestic abuse and abuse against the elderly. These will be briefly discussed belowLegislationLegislation is a very effective deterrent to offensive activity. Harsh sentences deter potential perpetrators of crime and reduce crime levels. Since domestic violence and violence against the elderly is a crime, harsh legislation should act as a deterrent to crime. Lawmakers should pass laws which give long prison sentences to people convicted of all forms of violence (Neil John, 2000). This will reduce the overall violence crime levels.RehabilitationRehabilitation can effectively treat people who have mental disorders which make them commit violence. Rehabilitation can also make a person who commits violent acts against others realize the harmful impacts to victims, and stop the vice (Hamel Nicholls, 2007). People who practice any form of abuse should be advised to seek focal point or rehabilitation aimed at encouraging them to change their attitude towards violence. This will enable them to be accepted back into society and to live with other members of society in harmony.Social servicesGovernments should offer social services loose of charge to victims of domestic and elderly abuse. According to Wilcox (2006), these services should include legal, medical, psychological and fiscal services which will ensure that they recover from the abuse and that the perpetrator is arrested and charged with the offence. The government should ensure that these victims reside in a safe place free from any form of violence.Public awareness campaignsThis is among the most effective tools of fighting violence in society. The government and civil society should organize campaigns which are aimed at increasing awareness on domestic violence and violence against the elderly. These campaigns should encourage people to report such cases to law enforceme nt agencies. The campaigns should also provide potential victims with information about where they can access help in case they experience these forms of violence.

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Mobile Robotic Arm Motivation Computer Science Essay

Mobile Robotic Arm Motivation Computer Science EssayRobotics is technology that deals with the end, construction and transaction of automatonsthat are employ in numerous applications is called robotics. It has become an unstopp fitting force in the ripening of mod machinery as they make life easier. It is an interesting publication to dwell in as it is the future of mankind. Although we know them as recent inventions, the vagary of automated or pick upled machines has fascinated humans. With this fascination it motivated me to work on this project, building and programming a mobile robotic arm. It is my hunger to learn and attain knowledge that drives me towards this field of study for my project.CUsersDanDesktopImages21042010(002).jpg digit 1.1.1 Mobile Robotic Arm1.2 universe to RoboticsRobotics is an interesting topic of re seek. Basically it is an engineering field that is concerned with research and creation of robots for various applications. Robots are machines that consist of electronic and mechanical parts such(prenominal) as gears and cogs put together for performing tasks in place of humans. They female genitalia be programmed to perform a whole range of tasks with ease. They are most desire for reliable puzzle outs because they never tire, they can endure harsh physical conditions that is possibly life threatening and they never get bored or distracted from reiterative work. The number of robots has begun to increase in numbers everywhere as they make human labour almost non-existent with their efficacy and throughput.They can work with the simplest of materials to the most precarious such as radioactive materials. They can be found more than commonly in industrial use from production lines of factories to harvesting of fruits in orchards. In domestic use, from vacuum cleaning to lawn mowing where these domestic tasks have become boring for a human to undertake and would rather leave it to robots. In the more modern military use , robots play an important usage to reduce human casualties from dangerous jobs such as bomb defusal and non forgetting space exploration where it might not be possible for humans to explore and for collecting terrain sample from foreign planets. For exploring enemy territories unmanned aerial vehicles are used from which these pilotless drones can search terrains for hostiles and fire on targets.Robots are meant to complete tasks that it is programmed to do. Programs can always be altered to suit the task at hand. As robots become more go they gain more features such as sensors and artificial intelligence as they become more human resembling. Examples of sensors include motion sensors, temperature sensors, light and many more various types. For deterrent example, in pathfinder robots we usually find a motion sensor which aids a robot in avoiding obstacles.In other applications for example in a water tank when the water has reached a certain level the sensor enables the robot t o stop the flow of water. It can be used in industrial applications such as grip fleur-de-lisg objects from conveyor belts or it can be used in a more advanced role such as bomb defusal, where it would be dangerous for a human to interact. With camera attachments, humans can dominance these machines from a safe distance plot of land completing the task at hand in a safe and efficient manner. In the medical field where a more delicate raise up is required, a robotic arm can perform tiny incisions for a less invasive method. With a robotic arm jobs can be done with ease and efficiency and thus eliminate human errors and the costs that come with those errors.http// omen 1.2.1 Mars Rover1.3 ObjectivesThe aim of this project is to build a robotic arm for the purpose of lifting and abject small objects. It is just standardized a human arm with joints to facilitate faecal matter. The end attachment features a gr ipper which is able to grab and hold objects and also a probe light in order to work in low light scenarios. The arm is controlled via wired remote. It is rested on a mobile outdoor stage which is fitted with 2 rear wheels and 2 robot castors at the front. This allows the robot to move to the desired location where the object is.The objectives of this project areTo understand and develop center knowledge in robotics.To apply the knowledge of robotics and design a prototype.To implement the designs and build an actual prototype.Figure 1.3.1 Project LayoutEndInsert Instruction Codes into paintingTest PrototypeEvaluate Coding in relation to ironware designWrite CodesDiscuss Movement ConceptPropose Objectives1.4 Design gunpointFigure 1.4.1 Design Flow ChartThis simple flowchart can explain the overall process involved in this project. After the objectives have been proposed the robot try and motion concept is discussed and after that the codifications are written. It is download ed into the microcontroller for testing. If testing fails we return to the regulation stage and evaluate the coding. The process reaches the end after testing passes.Chapter 2 Robot Overview2.1 Hardware DesignThis aim of this project is to design a mobile robotic arm. The arm part consists of two joints which enable 2 degree of trend and at the end of the top joint is a gripper which enables objects to be gripped by the attachment. The base has two wheels at the back and at the front two robot castors which has ball bearings underneath. This project involves two parts which is hardware and software product product. However twain parts are intricately attached and it is hard to actually separate them completely. This physical composition will focus more on the software aspect. on that point will be some minor hardware introduction as understanding of the hardware is required to work with the software. Here is the component list for the hardwareComponentAmountMicrocontroller PIC 18F45201 travel Driver SN75441014.7k Ohm Resistor11uF galvanising capacity40.33uF Capacitor10.1uF Capacitor1L7805 potential Regulator120MHz Oscillator19 Volt Battery1C40R Servo beat back3C55R Servo Motor1Servo Holder4Servo U Bracket2SPG10 Geared Motor242mm Wheels2Robot Castors2Table 2.1.1 Hardware ComponentsTo write the software one must be familiar with the hardware functionality, configuration and settings. The hardware of significant greatness would be the microcontroller as the program is stored there. It sends the signal to the pins where other devices are connected. One of those devices is the servomechanismmechanism beat back. It is what controls the arm and base. Actual control of the servos is by push buttons. Those buttons are connected to the microcontroller and is able to control the servo thru programming of the microcontroller. It is done by generating and manipulating PWM signals which will be discussed later.PROJECT BOARD20.0 cm24.0 cm10.0 cm25.6 cmTOP PROFI LE.jpgFigure 2.1.1 Robot Layout2.2 parcel DesignAfter the purpose and specifications are determined it is time to plan and design the software. Most modern robots are controlled by sophisticated software. Creation and variety of the software is crucial to make machines work the way we want it to. There are many ways a machine can be programmed. The software is usually stored in the heart of the machine which is either a microprocessor or a microcontroller depending on what the machine does and how it works. That device is the brains of the robot as all the book of instructions are stored there. The software is the link for the user to the hardware as the program relays the instructions to the robot in machine code.The user writes the program in calculating machine language which will then be converted into machine code by the compiler. There are many computer languages available to write programs such assembly, C, Pascal, BASIC and FORTH. For this project the microcontroller th at is used is Microchips PIC18F4520. The language used to program the microcontroller is C. C is a simple and procedural language and it has influenced many later languages such Java. It is broadly unsettled and function based. Values are stored in variables for easy access and it is structured by defining and calling functions to perform tasks. C allows precise control of the introduce and output. The input signal and output can be easily directed to the microcontroller terminals.The IDE (integrated development environment) that is used for this project is MPLAB which is a 32bit program used for the software development of this project along with the MPLAB C18 compiler add-on to allow the codes to be written in C .This is the screenshot of the development environmentCUsersDanDesktopFYP ReportimagesUntitled.jpgFigure 2.2.1 MPLAB IDEThe general idea of writing the program is to control the pins of the microcontroller. The robot arm mechanism and the base mechanism will be separat ed for easier explanation. The arm is made up of the first stage, 2nd stage, the left gripper and the right gripper. Control of the servos is by generating PWM signals which will be discussed in detail in chapter 4. By manipulation of these PWM signals we can control the servo transaction to a certain angle with great precision. For the DC motors in the base, it is controlled via motor controller. By manipulating logical system combinations we will be able to control the movement and direction of the base.Infinite draw in to check for button pressA button is pressedNecessary routine or function is called to move servo/ DC motorEndFigure 2.2.2 General Software FlowchartThis is a general flowchart to represent the program flow. A while loop with an infinite condition is used to continuously check if a button has been pressed. If a button is pressed it will call the necessary function to prolong the specific device whether it is the servo or the DC motor.Chapter 3 Hardware Informa tion3.1 MicrocontrollerThis project makes use of Microchip Technologys PIC18F4520 microcontroller. Lets discuss in detail what is a microcontroller and how it makes this project work. neb that a microcontroller is chosen instead of a microprocessor for this project for a number of reasons. To make the choice, one must know the difference amongst a microcontroller and a microprocessor in terms of functionality and application. Both are typically a small computer in the form of an integrated roofy which contains things like registers, storehouse, I/O, severs and timers. They vary in terms of number of I/O, registers, clock speed and memory size.Microcontrollers are usually for cases that involve a lot of input output devices in contrast to a microprocessor which is usually used for heavy data applications. So that means microcontrollers dominate the robotics and automation industry. Lets examine closely what it looks like and the detailed features for this particular microcontrol ler, the PIC18F4520. Its versatility, robust nature and features contributed to the choosing of this IC. The detailed features along with its operation can be found in the datasheet for the microcontroller.CUsersDanDesktopFYP ReportimagesPIC18F4520IP.jpgFigure 3.1.1 PIC18F4250Parameter discloseValueProgram Memory TypeFlashProgram Memory (KB)32CPU Speed (MIPS)10RAM Bytes1,536Data EEPROM (bytes)256Digital parley Peripherals1-A/E/USART, 1-MSSP(SPI/I2C)Capture/Compare/PWM Peripherals1 CCP, 1 ECCPTimers1 x 8-bit, 3 x 16-bitADC13 ch, 10-bitComparators2Temperature Range (C)-40 to 125Operating Voltage Range (V)2 to 5.5Pin Count40Table 3.1.1 PIC18F4250 SpecificationsPeripheral Highlights High-current sink/source 25 mA/25 mA Three programmable remote interrupts Four input change interrupts Up to 2 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) staffs,one with Auto-Shutdown (28-pin devices) Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)module (40/44-pin devices only) One, two or quartette PWM outputs Selectable polarit y Programmable dead time Auto-Shutdown and Auto-Restart Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) modulesupporting 3-wire SPI (all 4 modes) and I2CMaster and Slave Modes Enhanced Addressable USART module Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN 1.2 RS-232 operation using internal oscillatorblock (no external crystal required) Auto-Wake-up on Start bit Auto-Baud Detect 10-bit, up to 13-channel Analog-to-DigitalConverter module (A/D) Auto-acquisition capability mutation available during Sleep Dual analog comparators with input multiplexing)Power Managed Modes Run CPU on, peripherals on Idle CPU pip, peripherals on Sleep CPU off, peripherals off Idle mode currents down to 5.8 A typical Sleep mode current down to 0.1 A typical Timer1 Oscillator 1.8 A, 32 kHz, 2V Watchdog Timer 2.1 A Two-Speed Oscillator Start-upFlexible Oscillator Structure Four Crystal modes, up to 40 MHz 4X Phase Lock Loop (available for crystal andinternal oscillators) Two External RC modes, up to 4 MHz Two External Clock modes , up to 40 MHz Internal oscillator block 8 user selectable frequencies, from 31 kHz to 8 MHz Provides a complete range of clock speedsfrom 31 kHz to 32 MHz when used with PLL User tuneable to compensate for frequency drift thirdhand oscillator using Timer1 32 kHz Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Allows for safe shutdown if peripheral clock stopsSpecial Microcontroller Features C compiler optimized computer architecture Optional extended instruction set designed tooptimize re-entrant code 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flashprogram memory typical 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROMmemory typical Flash/Data EEPROM Retention 100 years typical Self-programmable under software control Priority levels for interrupts 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT) Programmable period from 4 ms to 131s Single- tote up 5V In-Circuit Serial program (ICSP) via two pins In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins Wide operating potential drop range 2.0V to 5.5V Programmable 16-le vel High/ low-voltageDetection (HLVD) module Supports interrupt on High/Low-VoltageDetection Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR With software enable optionHere is a list of pins and how they are connected in the circuit.Pin NamePin anatomy (PDIP)FunctionsMCLR1ResetRA13Servo PWM InputRA24Servo PWM InputRA35Servo PWM InputRA46Servo PWM InputVDD11+5VVSS12GroundedOSC113Oscillator Crystal/External Clock InputOSC214Oscillator Crystal/External Clock InputRC015IN2 of Motor DriverRC116IN1 of Motor DriverRC318IN4 of Motor DriverRD019IN3 of Motor DriverVSS31GroundedVDD32+5VRB033Motor jab ButtonRB134Motor raise ButtonRB235Motor Push ButtonRB336Motor Push ButtonRB437Servo Arm Push ButtonRB538Servo Arm Push ButtonRB639Servo Arm Push ButtonRB740Servo Arm Push ButtonTable 3.1.2 Pin ConnectionsCUsersDanialDesktopFull Schem.JPGFigure 3.1.2 Full Schematics3.2 Motor DriverFigure 3.2.1 SN754410 Motor DriverThe SN754410NE is a quadruple half-H driver. The SN754410 can work a pair of DC motors at th e analogous time. It gives the robot bidirectional movements. It carries the peak output currents up to 1 ampere at a voltage range of 4.5 to 36V. The SN754410 has a minimum logic voltage of 4.5V and a maximum logic voltage of 5.5V. This driver is made to operate from a -400C to 850C. Drivers are enabled in pairs. Driver 1 and driver 2 are enabled by 1,2EN. Driver 3 and driver 4 are enabled by 3,4EN. When the input is low, the drivers are switch and the outputs are off. If the input is high, the drivers are enabled and the outputs are on.Figure 3.2.2 SN754410 Motor Driver PinoutPin 1 (1,2EN) enables/ disables the motorPin 2 (1A) is a logic pin for the motorPin 3 (1Y) is for Motor APin 4, 5 are for groundingPin 6 (2Y) is for Motor APin 7 (2A) connected to the motorPin 8 (VCC2) connected to source for motor powerPin 9 (3,4EN) enables/ disables the motorPin 10 (3A) connected to the motorPin 11 (3Y) is for Motor BPin 12, 13 are for groundingPin 14 (4Y) is for Motor BPin 15 (4A) conn ected to the motorINPUTSOUTPUT YH = High LevelL = Low LevelX = Do Not MatterXX = polish offAENHHHLHLXLXXTable 3.2.1 SN754410 Function TableCUsersDanialDesktopMotor.JPGFigure 3.2.3 Motor Schematics3.3 DC MotorThis project will use the SPG10 Geared Motor that has 1.3 kg/cm torque. This motor is light enough to not weigh down the robot and only weighs 10 grams. It runs at 45 rpm.Figure 3.3.1 SPG10 MotorCUsersDanDesktopImages23042010(001).jpgFigure 3.3.2 Motor Wheel3.4 Servo MotorA servo is a mechanism used in robotic control systems. It is a mechanism that the user can set and forget. This is because of its ability to make corrections to return to its preset state if any changes occur. This is thanks to feedback operations. A servo is a casing that contains a DC motor, some gears with an output shaft, a variable resister that is connected to the output shaft, and a control board.The sensor mechanism allows the control circuit to monitor the current. The motor, through a series o f gears, turns the output. The control circuit calculates the difference from the intended position from the current position the shaft is in. This makes the motor turn to its new position. If the control circuit senses that the position is accurate, it brings to a halt the motor.There are three connections to a servo the power line, the ground line and finally the control signal. The servo needs to be told when to move and wont do so even if power is provided directly. The servo utilizes pulse width modulation (PWM) stream to indicate its position.SpecificationServo Motor ModelAt 5 VoltsSpeed (s/60o)0.19Torque ( To Control AngleTTL PWMPWM At Min Angle (ms)0.54PWM At Max Angle (ms)2.40Operating Voltage (VDC)4.8-6.0Operating frequency (Hz)50.0Moving Range(degree)0-180Wiring (Black/Brown Wire)GroundWiring (Red Wire)4.8-6.0 VoltsWiring (Orange/Other Wire)PWM SignalTable 3.4.1 Servo SpecificationsCUsersDanialDesktopUntitled.jpgFigure 3.4.1 Servo MotorCUsersDanialDeskto pServo.JPGFigure 3.4.2 Servo SchematicChapter 4 Software Coding4.1 PWM GenerationPWM is simply the short form for pulse-width modulation. It is an efficient way to provide intermediate amounts of electrical power between fully on and fully off. This means PWM signals are digital, because at any instant given instant of time, the full DC supply is either fully on or fully off. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion. umteen microcontrollers include on-chip PWM controllers, like the one which is used this project, which makes this easy for controlling the servos for this project. One of the advantages of PWM is that the signal remains digital all the way from the processor to the controlled system and no digital-to-analog conversion is necessary. By keeping the signal digital, noise effects are minimized. Noise can only affect a digital signal if it is weapons-grade enough to change logic 1 to log ic 0, or vice versa. PWM is the basis of controlling the servos in this project. Lets examine some basic theory.CUsersDanDesktopFYP Reportimagespwm.gifFigure 4.1.1 PWM Square WaveThe diagram above shows a PWM signal that changes between 0 and 5 volts which is equivalent as digital logic 0 and 1. Notice that the waves are symmetrical. The uptime and downtime is 10ms when added together we get the period which is 20ms. Now that the basics are out of the way, lets look at how a normal servo signal input looks like.CUsersDanDesktopFYP Reportimagespwm_servo.gifFigure 4.1.2 PWM WaveNote that the servo runs at 50Hz frequency and therefore the period is 20ms. The uptime is what determines the angle of which the servo motor moves to. In simple words, we can tell the servo where to move with great precision.These are some examples for 180 servos.t = 0.9msT = 20msAngle = 0t = 1.5msT = 20msAngle = 90t = 2.1msT = 20msAngle = 180The next step is to create these PWM signals using the PIC microco ntroller. The PWMs is in this switch statementswitch(count) //Choose which servo to modifycase 1 PORTA = 0x02 // First StageWriteTimer1( servo3 )breakcase 2 PORTA = 0x04 // left over(p) GripperWriteTimer1( servo1 )breakcase 3 PORTA = 0x08 // proficient GripperWriteTimer1( servo0 )breakcase 4 PORTA = 0x10 // Second StageWriteTimer1( servo2 )breakFigure 4.1.3 Switch StatementThe operations for the timers are split in to 4 possible cases of how to generate PWM signal to the pins to power the servos.This is what the statement does//INTERRUPT CONTROLpragma code InterruptVectorHigh=0x08void InterruptVectorHigh (void)_asm//assembly code startsgoto InterruptHandlerHigh//interrupt control_endasm//assembly code endspragma codepragma interrupt InterruptHandlerHigh//end interrupt controlCase 1 turns PortA1 On and resets the timer1.Case 2 turns PortA1 Off, PortA2 on and resets the timer1. Case 3 turns PortA2 Off, PortA3 on and resets the timer1. Case 4 turns PortA3 Off, PortA4 on and resets th e timer1.Figure 4.1.4 Interrupt HandlerThe switch statement is nested in the interrupt handler function. The interrupt handler handles the timer operations. The interrupt control runs assembly code and then calls the go-to function which is InterruptHandlerHigh. The interrupt controller is set at high priority 0x08. Once the interrupt control is correctly implemented interrupts is sent to the interrupt handler where we can do whatever operation necessary depending on the type of interrupt.4.2 Arm Controlvoid move(int one,int two,int three,int four, int five)if(one)servo0 = one // Right Gripperif(two)servo1 = two // Left Gripperif(three)servo2 = three // Second Stage Linkif(four)servo3 = four // First Stage LinkA move function is declared to make things easier when linking with buttons. The arguments of the move function are the respective position the servo moves to when it is called upon.Figure 4.2.1 Move FunctionAfter the move function is declared it can be called when the speci fic button is pressed.//Arm Controlif(PORTBbits.RB7==1)move(0xF03B,0xF477,0,0,0) //GRIPif(PORTBbits.RB6==1)move(0,0,(servo2-0x0250),(servo3+0x0100),0) //MOVE AWAYif(PORTBbits.RB5==1)move(0,0,(servo2+0x0250),(servo3-0x0100),0) //MOVE TOWARDSif(PORTBbits.RB4==1)move(0xFA77,0xEE07,0,0,0) //UNGRIPFigure 4.2.2 Arm Button CheckThere are 4 buttons that control the movement of the arm.PortB pin 0 Close the gripperPortB pin 1 Move arm awayPortB pin 2 Move arm towardsPortB pin 3 circularise the gripperCUsersVictorDesktopImagesClose Gripper.jpgFigure 4.2.3 Close GripperThis picture depicts a closed gripper state that is triggered by the button. The following figure is how the robotic arm will look when it is triggered to open both grippers.CUsersDanDesktop22042010(007).jpgFigure 4.2.3 Open Gripper4.3 Base ControlThe only thing that needs to be controlled in the base is the 2 DC geared motors. It is relate with the microcontroller through the H-bridge. The motors rotational direction is de termined by a combinational logic code as seen in the data sheet of the motor driver. It is the same with the servo, when a button is pressed certain commands will be executed.//Base Controlif(PORTBbits.RB3==1)//Forward controlPORTCbits.RC1=1PORTCbits.RC0=0PORTDbits.RD0=1PORTCbits.RC3=0if(PORTBbits.RB2==1)// contain controlPORTCbits.RC1=0PORTCbits.RC0=1PORTDbits.RD0=0PORTCbits.RC3=1Figure 4.3.1 Base Button Check (Forward/Reverse)if(PORTBbits.RB1==1)//Left controlPORTCbits.RC1=0PORTCbits.RC0=1PORTDbits.RD0=1PORTCbits.RC3=0if(PORTBbits.RB0)//Right ControlPORTCbits.RC1=1PORTCbits.RC0=0PORTDbits.RD0=0PORTCbits.RC3=1Figure 4.3.2 Base Button Check (Left/Right)There are 4 buttons that control the movement of the base.PortB pin 4 ForwardPortB pin 5 ReversePortB pin 6 Move rightPortB pin 7 Move left4.4 seemingCUsersDanDesktopUntitled.jpgFigure 4.4.1 Watch SimulationThe MPLAB software allows a minimal amount of simulation to show that the program is written correctly. Due to software conf inement on the PIC18F4520 it is unable to correctly show port activities. However it does show variable activity like in the figure by using the tick feature in the MPLAB.This screenshot shows the stepping when reaching the OpenTimer1 function. A separate window opens to show the function and it will continue to step through the function until it is done.CUsersDanDesktopUntitled1.jpgFigure 4.4.2 Program SteppingThe stepping continues while opening the necessary functions in a separate window and steps though it until it is done. It reaches the while loop and it keeps looping as it waits for a button to be pressed. Figure 4.4.3 shows the final stage of the program stepping.CUsersDanDesktopUntitled3.jpgFigure 4.4.3 Final SteppingChapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendation5.1 SummaryThis project has further grow my interest and knowledge in the field of robotics. A project that is very hands on like this helps with the development of certain skills that would certainly help when I go on to become a professional engineer. The most important skill would be planning the stages of the project.To conclude, this project involved two phases which is the hardware design and software design. This report covered the software aspect in detail. In the early stages of this project different methods was planned for the outcome. At the start, the use of a PLC (programmable logic controller) was planned. However it proved to be infeasible in terms of cost and size. In the end it was decided that a PIC microcontroller was to be use as it is easier to implement with respect to the project and provides a great deal of functionality. The programming was made easier with the addition of the C compiler thus enabling the use of a higher level language which is C. With the use of a language of higher level it would be easier to implement features that were not possible using the PLC.5.2 RecommendationsIn this project, certain improvements can be made in order to make things work more e fficiently. For example, the quick movements seen in the arm is because of the incrementer seen in the codes and lack true control software. By revising the software and introducing more control oriented design it is possible to fine tune the speed. Instead of the 2 robot castors that make up the front motion it could be replaced with wheels and a servo in between them to make the movement and control similar to remote controlled cars. The wired controller could be replaced with a wireless RF controller to allow more freedom to the user. The body work could be improved by using sturdier and lightweight materials such as aluminium. Some sensors could be added to enhance the normal usage of the arm.