Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Historical Account Cubism is a part of the abstraction period of modern art in the beginning of the twentieth century. There was a series Ã¢â¬Ëisms' that influenced each other and came quickly in the modern world of art. These include Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Division and Symbolism. It was believed to be started with Picasso and Baroque in 1907. Cubism was a movement of modern artists going against the accepted style of paintings and pushing the boundaries of what was modern art.The Impressionists and Realists of the late 19th century started to paint more everyday items and in a ore spontaneous fashion, in contrast to the classical period which came before. Immediately before cubism were artists like Cezanne and Serrate who were considered to be post impressionists who were converting impressionism into a more classical style. Then Van Gogh wanted to express more emotion in his art than the impressionists had, and his style started to develop including vivid colors and bright landscapes.Art in the modern world moved from telling stories and depicting important historical occasions, to a more personal approach from the artist. The artist wanted to explore their emotions, the everyday and play with form, perspective and composition These colors and need to express emotions led to different movements of expressionism, the Fauves (wild beasts) which had artists including Van Gogh and Gauguin, German expressionism was more extreme, Abstraction came after this and cubism was one of the forms that led heavily from it.During 1908, Baroque and Picasso realized they were working towards the same ideas and decided to work together until 1914. Their principal subject became the still life. They experimented with painting and sculpture to express and challenge the way objects are represented. What you see depicted in a cubist work is not a realistic representation of the object, but a flattening of the planes that make up th e object from different directions in a strong geometric fashion.The artist no longer relied on the renaissance principals of geometric perspectives. The painter was free to explore a different visual reality and to challenge the viewer in what they were seeing in a two dimensional form. By 1909 Picasso began to break individual forms into smaller faceted shapes. For example the head had each feature as its own carefully modeled form. Ã¢â¬Å"The paintings and drawings of 1909 are works which give rise to the word cubism when Picasso was accused of dividing his pictures into Ã¢â¬Ëlittle cubes'. In 1910 Picasso made a breakthrough where the figure was seen or represented as transparent planes that locked together which allowed the eye to pass through them to the picture behind so the pictures had a more sculptural element. The movement ended in 1914 as Picasso was a prolific painter and continued to explore other ways of expressing himself. There was a turn towards realism again in 915 to 1920. Critical Account Ã¢â¬â The Women of Avignon This painting is a particularly important work in the development of cubism and Picasso artistic Journey.The picture is grounded in tradition and yet challenges the viewer with new perspectives and treatment of color and form. Picasso starts with the classical grouping of the three figures on the left. Their placement and gestures and semi nude attire seem to be familiar and are drawn from the images of the late Renaissance of the three graces. Picasso uses this familiarity to lure the viewer in but then starts to play with perspective, proportion ND color to challenge and represent a new way of viewing.Picasso has distorted the figures, using angular planes and we can see the beginnings of the different perspectives represented in the arms and faces of the figures. He uses flesh colored tones for the figures but in a very flat way rather than the traditional gently coupled tones of classical realism that leads to the repre sentation of the three dimensional figure on the two dimensional canvas. The shading and abstract nature of the shapes used meaner that they are very much in the modern world.We can see an example of this shifting of the perspective in the two central figures where the eyes are different sizes, the noses are off-set and the shape of the ears is distorted. As we look at the body of the three figures and the draping, we start to see flat geometric shapes and the beginning of the cubist treatment of the human figure. When we look at the small still life of fruit in a bowl at the bottom of the painting, we see the flattening of perspectives emerging. If this were a real representation of fruit in a bowl they would be effected by gravity.This representation makes the viewer eel anxious, waiting for the fruit to fall. In this way Picasso creates tension and expresses emotion through the distorted perspective. Picasso had a very difficult relationship with women and in the painting he repr esents women very differently between the group of three on the left, and the group of two on the right hand side. The three classical figures are more sympathetic and easy on the eye for the viewer, but there is dark shadows on the figures in the far left that hint at darker emotions.The figures on the right are more fully abstracted and show the influence of African ribald masks and paintings. The colors are not sympathetic, classical nude colors, but instead brighter and harsher reds, blues and greens. These women are confronting and convey a strong emotion for the viewer, but this destruction of form is not accidental but quite methodical. Everything in the picture is broken up into angular wedges and facets. Having said that these shapes are not flat but are shaded in such a way to give some sense of the third dimension. These sharp angles and edges, voids and solids, led to this movement being dubbed as cubism. History of Art Ã¢â¬â Cubism Is a part of the abstraction period of modern art In the beginning of the twentieth century. There was a series Ã¢â¬ËIsms' that Influenced each other and came quickly In the modern world of art. These Include Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Dolmen's and Symbolism. It was believed to be started with Picasso and Braque's in 1907. Cubism was a movement of modern artists going against the accepted style of paintings and pushing the boundaries of what was modern art.The Impressionists ND Realists of the late 19th century started to paint more everyday items and in a more spontaneous fashion, in contrast to the classical period which came before. Immediately before cubism were artists like Cezanne and Serrate who were considered to be post Impressionists who were converting Impressionism into a more classical style. Then Van Gogh wanted to express more emotion in his art than the impressionists had, and his style started to develop Including vivid colors and bright landscapes.Art In the modern world moved from telling stones and depleting important historical occasions, to a more personal approach from the artist. The artist wanted to explore their emotions, the everyday and play with form, perspective and composition These colors and need to express emotions led to different movements of expressionism, the Fauves (wild beasts) which had artists including Van Gogh and Gauguin, German expressionism was more extreme, Abstraction came after this and cubism was one of the forms that led heavily from it.During 1908, Braque's and Picasso realized they were working towards the same Ideas and decided to work together until 1914. Their principal subject became the still life. They experimented with painting and sculpture to express and challenge the way objects are represented. What you see depicted in a cubist work is not a realistic representation of the object, but a flattening of the planes that make up the object from different d irections in a strong geometric fashion.The artist no longer relied on the renaissance principals of geometric perspectives. The painter was free to explore a different visual reality and to challenge the viewer in what they were seeing in a two dimensional form. By 1909 Picasso began to break individual forms into smaller faceted shapes. For example the head had each feature as its own carefully modeled form. Ã¢â¬Å"The paintings and drawings of 1 909 are works which give rise to the word cubism when palaces was accused of dividing his pictures Into Ã¢â¬Ëlittle cubes'. In 1910 palaces made a breakthrough where the figure was seen or represented as transparent planes that locked together which allowed the eye to pass through them to the picture behind so The movement ended in 1914 as Picasso was a prolific painter and continued to explore other ways of expressing himself. There was a turn towards realism again in 1915 to 1920. Critical Account Ã¢â¬â The Women of Avignon This pa inting is a particularly important work in the development of cubism and Picasso artistic Journey.The picture is grounded in tradition and yet challenges the viewer with new perspectives and treatment of color and form. Picasso starts with the classical grouping of the three figures on the left. Their placement and gestures and semi nude attire seem to be familiar and are drawn from the images of the late Renaissance of the three graces. Picasso uses this familiarity to lure the viewer in but then starts to play with perspective, proportion and color to challenge and represent a new way of viewing.Picasso has distorted the figures, using angular planes and we can see the beginnings of the different perspectives represented in the arms and faces of the figures. He uses flesh clouded tones for the figures but in a very flat way rather than the traditional gently suspected tones of classical realism that leads to the representation of the three dimensional figure on the two dimensional canvas. The hading and abstract nature of the shapes used means that they are very much in the modern world.We can see an example of this shifting of the perspective in the two central figures where the eyes are different sizes, the noses are off-set and the shape of the ears is distorted. As we look at the body of the three figures and the draping, we start to see flat geometric shapes and the beginning of the cubist treatment of the human figure. When we look at the small still life of fruit in a bowl at the bottom of the painting, we see the flattening of perspectives emerging. If this were a real representation of fruit n a bowl they would be effected by gravity.This representation makes the viewer feel anxious, waiting for the fruit to fall. In this way Picasso creates tension and expresses emotion through the distorted perspective. Picasso had a very difficult relationship with women and in the painting he represents women very differently between the group of three on the le ft, and the group of two on the right hand side. The three classical figures are more sympathetic and easy on the eye for the viewer, but there is dark shadows on the figures in the far left that hint at darker emotions.The figures on the right are more fully abstracted and show the influence of African tribal masks and paintings. The colors are not sympathetic, classical nude colors, but instead brighter and harsher reds, blues and greens. These women are is not accidental but quite methodical. Everything in the picture is broken up into angular wedges and facets. Having said that these shapes are not flat but are shaded in such a way to give some sense of the third dimension. These sharp angles and edges, voids and solids, led to this movement being dubbed as cubism.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Living together, getting married and having children are all the important factors that contribute in creating a family. The Canadian family has, is and will face different types of challenges in the future. Families in Canada have changed as time has progressed. In this time period the Canadian family has faced a number of challenges. I believe this is due to the increase in divorce rates, same sex marriage and living together in common law. Depending on the situation within the family, families in Canada have found to be challenged.First of all I would like to bring out probably the most common challenge and factor which is making marriages unsuccessful, that being divorce. The divorce rate in Canadian families is increasing day by day from what it used to be. Divorce leads to a disturbance in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family when he/she files for one. The children of the divorced couples are not being raised up normally; moreover they are being raised up living with a single parent or living o ne week with the mother and one week with the father.The children are not getting the time and love from their parents which they would normally get if their parents lived together. In my opinion a family is a group of people involving a mother, father and their children living together in the same house, so if the parents of the children get divorced it causes that family to break when they no longer live with each other. Back in the day divorce was not that common as it is today, people would get married for life but now a days if couples get into a fight the first option that pops up in their heads is divorce.People nowadays are taking advantage of the divorce laws and are using them more commonly which is leading Canadian families challenged. Another challenge that Canadian families are facing these days is same sex marriage. When a couple of the same sex gets married together they are left with a challenge of having children together. To overcome this challenge most couples tak e the option of adopting children or having children through surrogacy, and some decide not to bring children in their lives at all.The couples that do decide to adopt children, the children are still not gifted with a mother and a father; moreover they could grow up having two mothers or two fathers. In this situation the children are not being raised up as they would be if they had both a father and a mother. On the other hand when same sex married couples decide not to adopt children and not bring them in their lives at all, this leads to their generation from further expanding. With all due espect to same sex marriage, same sex marriage is a challenge that families in our society are facing in the new era. On the other hand one other challenge that Canadian families are facing these days is the challenge of common law. Common law has become more common in the new world. Couples are moving in, living together, and having children without being married. Couples these days are spen ding more time living together before marriage than they are after marriage or they are breaking up even before getting to the extent of getting married.Common law mostly involves teen couples living or having children together, this is because teens are less mature and do not know what the responsibility of raising children together is, so often teens tend to break up with each other despite having children. Adults on the other hand tend to live together for years in common law and at some point when they do get married it may not last that long because they know each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ups and downs because of all the time they have spent together. In this case common law is another crucial challenge that Canadian families are facing these days.Finally I would like to say Canadian families are continuing to change and face crucial challenges such as, divorce, same sex marriage and common law day by day. Living together, getting married and having children are all important factors tha t contribute in creating a family. If any one of these crucial factors gets disturbed then it leaves the families faced with challenges. If we fulfil all the factors that contribute in creating a family in the right way then it will leave our families with less of a challenge.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Computers - Essay Example However, the issue of ethics in the utilization of technology has been overlooked for a long time now. According to a research done by Bush, Bush, and Orr (2010), many users find no need to conduct ethical procedures on the use of technological products. According to the research, such an activity would take away a lot of valuable time from the managers or computer technicians. The result, therefore, is a technological platform full of ethical loopholes and weaknesses. During the earlier days, technology was used as an instrument for exploitation. However, this is not the case anymore because many people use it to experience change. It is through this way that technology has been able to dominate activities in industry and trade amongst other significant sectors of the economy. Galimberti (2009), states that technology has not only taken over the economical domain of many countries and organizations but also dominated the political arena. Through technology, we are able to formulate different solutions for different problems and innovate new ways of doing things. Information technology is also responsible for the provision of information to everyone irrespective of time and location. Examples of such activities include the search of data and the formulation of computer applications that make it easy to conduct business. However, the burden of dealing with the ethical dilemma associated with technology lies squarely with business establishments, organizations or individuals. This is because there lacks a code of ethics in relation to the use of technology. For example, the rapid advancement of technology has made it impossible for nurses and other medical personnel to make sound and professional decisions. Advancements in technology... During the earlier days, technology was used as an instrument for exploitation. However, this is not the case anymore because many people use it to experience change. It is through this way that technology has been able to dominate activities in industry and trade amongst other significant sectors of the economy. Galimberti (2009), states that technology has not only taken over the economical domain of many countries and organizations but also dominated the political arena. Through technology, we are able to formulate different solutions for different problems and innovate new ways of doing things. Information technology is also responsible for the provision of information to everyone irrespective of time and location. Examples of such activities include the search of data and the formulation of computer applications that make it easy to conduct business. However, the burden of dealing with the ethical dilemma associated with technology lies squarely with business establishments, organizations or individuals. This is because there lacks a code of ethics in relation to the use of technology. For example, the rapid advancement of technology has made it impossible for nurses and other medical personnel to make sound and professional decisions. Advancements in technology bring about the development of new equipment for hospitals.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
A Child's Drawing Expresses Their Psychological Ability and Feelings - Essay Example Talking does not offer a comprehensive medium of expression. According to Golomb (pp. 42), a childÃ¢â¬â¢s hidden feelings can only be expressed by art, specifically drawings. Be it small or a large drawing so much can be said from the piece of art. Other than career and professional drawings, drawings have been used to detect the feeling in most children who undergo psychological problems. In some instances drawings as an art has been used as anger management tool. This is an indication on how important art is in managing of human emotion. In an argument by Herne, Cox & Watts (pp. 115), a childÃ¢â¬â¢s drawings expresses about 75% of their internal feelings both emotional and psychological. In interpreting the drawings psychologists consider color, size, location of characters, characters, page location, font and shading type and the facial expression of child when drawing an image or character. Apart from the expression of feelings, drawings at different ages in children denote t heir psychological growth. From scribbling to real images and drawings is one notable feature in child development when drawings are concerned. It is this fact that has enabled me to come up with the theory that Ã¢â¬Å"a childÃ¢â¬â¢s drawing expresses their psychological ability and feelingsÃ¢â¬ . This paper will focus on how drawings show a child psychological growth and interpretation... This stage is known as fortuitous realism. At this stage a child understands scribbling as the best work of art they can achieve. However, as much as scribbling can be seen as insignificant, the way scribbling is done by a child can tell more about their emotion and psychology. Some children may scribble dark scribbles while at times scribble gentler and light scribbles. According to the American Counseling Association (pp. 34) this may denote anger or frustration and also satisfaction and happiness respectively. The second stage occurs between the ages of 4 Ã¢â¬â 7. This stage is known as preschematic stage. This stage is categorized into two stages of development. The stages are failed and intellectual realism. In the failed realism a child draws elements that are completely unrelated from the real image of the element. Intellectual realism is when a child draws an element from their knowledge. For instance, a child may draw a cup since the image is in their brain. The third sta ge of development is the schematic stage. The stage comes up between the ages of 8 Ã¢â¬â 9. In this stage a child draws what they see. The element shows the features of the real image. This is aimed at transferring their visual sense to the mental sense then the interpretation follows. It is also noted that this point kids differ from the accuracy of their drawings. At this point is where the visual and interpretation abilities of children are noted. Different children have different visual and interpretation prowess. This indicates that the psychology of children differs depending on their mental abilities. The three stages show that drawings effectively indicate the psychological growth and strength of children.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
The international day in The united Arab Emirats - Essay Example 145). There is youth day, women day and Jazz ceremony all being international events. Basing our discussion on the Jazz international day, it is worth noting that the ceremony held every year. It involves individuals from the different groups that are members of the United Arab Emirates; for example in 2013, there was a Jazz event at Dubai. This one of the largest member states of Emirates, and the ceremony theme was on uniting culture. Jazz Amalgam ceremony aimed at uniting people, discouraging members from civil war and promoting peace and harmony among the member states. During this event, People would understand one another and get to take each other as brother. The songs and dances would be educative and directed to peace making. They would help in assisting people understand the negative impacts of conflict and civil wars. The dancers would present performance of insecurity, loss of life resulting from conflict hence encouraging members to love one another and work towards protection for their own and reduction of terrorism. For example, in the 10th annual ceremony at Dubai, dignitaries from various nations such as France were invited the event, which is said to be symbolic. The federation leader was observed to sit at the central position leading the opening remarks. Scholars have observed that this was a sign of unity as the federation leader acted as a mediator who would help unite Arabs with western nations such as U.S.A. The France ambassador was present to learn more of Arab culture, and this would help reduce emerging conflict among the western and Arab states. Furthermore, in the 10th annual ceremony, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador and Thelonious chairman were present to participate in intercultural dialogue. This was a special event as it marked the beginning of unity among the western British and the Arabs. It is said to
Managing Business Operations - Supply Chain - Essay Example In order to meet its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand by providing quality services they decided to introduce IT in their business operations. Later on they ended up with problems as there was no integration between the systems of different units. Every individual department maintained its own account of activities properly but had no knowledge of what is happening in other departments. The lack of integration between different departments often created problems for the company. Thus, managing and integrating the affairs of all the units and departments became a tough task for a single person. Most often problems were detected after its occurrence. There are many processes involved in their business, beginning from order for freight to dispatch of the freight at the desired destination. The customer here is the company who places the order for transportation. The first process is the receipt of order from the client. Based upon the order, the company locates and sources the goods. The next p rocess is packaging of the sourced goods. Packaging is the process that requires intensive care. Goods may be breakable, or of exploding or evaporating nature etc. Each type of goods must be appropriately packaged so that no loss occurs to the customer due to destruction of goods. Dispatch of defective goods also affects the credibility of the company. The goods are packed and insured by MLH to secure the goods from loss in transit.
Friday, July 26, 2019
How to Write a Thesis - Essay Example The thesis proposal will show your thesis advisor the soundness (or the lack of it) of the thesis problem that you will pursue, the propriety of a research topic or the feasibility of the entire study, among others.One must never forget that in the whole process of thesis writing, constant communication with the thesis advisor is imperative. This thesis advisor is more in the position to suggest improvements, point out mistakes Ã¢â¬â in short provide invaluable insights that could increase your thesisÃ¢â¬â¢ chance of getting high mark. Moreover, the world may be impressed by outward show Ã¢â¬â neat typography and pretty layout - but assessors in higher education and professional people in your field should not be deceived by ornament. No amount of embellishments could hide the deficiencies in other respects. For instance, we have the inability to use language confidently and correctly, or from the use of inappropriate headings, or from the inclusion of information or ideas th at are inappropriate, irrelevant or out of place.For more resources about thesis writing, you may visit these pages: It is understandable that sometimes, due to time constraints, academic activities overload, a student could not single-handedly finish a thesis project. It may be a result of mistake in planning or adverse circumstances. However the case is, the consequences are quite unthinkable. For some researchers the thesis statement is the research question formulated in order to narrow a subject and give the thesis a direction.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Outline and critically examine the procedural and substantive changes in the law on land registration brought about by the Land Registration Act 2002. Is land r - Essay Example that the ostensibly restricted paradigm for land registration under the LRA 2002 narrows the extent and enforceability of third party proprietary rights, which in turn strengthens the position of a third party purchaser under the LRA 2002. Furthermore, one of the main objectives of the LRA 2002 was Ã¢â¬Å"to reduce the number of overriding interests which are binding upon a purchaser of a registered titleÃ¢â¬ 3. Conversely, Sexton comments that the Ã¢â¬Å"2002 Act achieves this purpose only to a very limited degreeÃ¢â¬ 4. Accordingly, whilst central driver of the LRA 2002 of the 2002 Act is to limit the scope of third party overriding interests, it the degree to which this objective has been achieved remains questionable. The focus of this analysis is to critically evaluate the procedural and substantive changes in the law on land registration as brought in by the LRA 2002. To this end, it is submitted that a central issue in the evaluation of the LRA 2002 is whether property purchase post 2002 has become easier as intended by the extrapolations of the Law Commission Report5. A central issue of concern in contemporary conveyancing is the applicability of any third party proprietary rights and to this end I shall undertake a contextual and comparative analysis with the unregistered system for enforceability of third party rights. Moreover, I shall further evaluate the system for enforceability of third party equitable rights under the registered land system post 2002. It is submitted at the outset that such an evaluation is imperative to the overall consideration of the substantive and procedural changes brought about by the LRA 2002. In assessing the extent of changes introduced by the LRA 2002, it is necessary to consider the essential objectives of the Law Commission Report, particularly in terms of its hailing the LRA bill as a revolution for conveyancing practice. Firstly, the Law Commission argued that the Ã¢â¬Å"Bill is a bold and striking oneÃ¢â¬ ¦.. The move from a paper
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Development 1 - Essay Example 1 Balanced growth (1953) The theory of balanced growth was proposed by Ragnar Nurkse in 1953. This theory was framed on the fact that newly independent economies could not achieve faster economic development due to the rapidity in basic commodity exports. The imported industrial commodities were the only alternatives which could have expanded the destroyed economies. In other words, the balanced growth or simultaneous enlargement of all industries was the most appropriate way to stimulate the economic growth of underdeveloped economies. At the same time, this type of growth necessitated the accumulation of large resources at one time. According to Nurkse (1953), Ã¢â¬Å"poor developing economies were characterized by a large surplus of labour employed at zero marginal cost in the traditional sectorÃ¢â¬ (cited in Hayami, Hayami and Godo, 135). NurkseÃ¢â¬â¢s model failed to provide adequate alternatives for the development of newly independent economies. Take-off into sustained gro wth (1956) Rostow (1956) defines Take-off into sustained growth model as, Ã¢â¬Å"the interval during which the rate of investment increases in such a way that real output per capita risesÃ¢â¬ (cited in Crouzet, 153). He also proposes certain conditions for the application of this theory. Rostow says that the proportion of net investment to national income must rise from 5% to 10% in order to satisfy the terms of the theory. Although Rostow connected his theory with the events occurred in Great Britain and several other countries, the theorist could not get any support from the available quantitative data (153). Critical minimum effort thesis (1957) Harvey Leibenstein (1957 cited in Gupta, 176), in his Critical Minimum Effort thesis, says that initial stimulants to development must possess a critical minimum size in order to achieve sustained growth. He continues that change in the value of a set of variables causes the economic backwardness and it possesses a certain degree of st eadiness. Since the economy is subjected to frequent shocks, the actual value of the variables will always be different from that of equilibrium values. Although these stimulants have the capacity to raise the per capita incomes, it is not possible in economically backward regions due to the weakness of the magnitude of these stimulants. 2 The export-oriented industrialization strategy was introduced as a technique to reframe the underdeveloped economies. The essence of the theory is that large scale production and thereby exports would enhance the economic growth of the country. Hence, developing countries too much depended on the exports of a few primary products in order to bridge the wider gap with advanced economies. Dijck, Linnemann and Verbruggen (3) tells that as a result of this strategy, more and more foreign investors were attracted towards the country so that these developing nations were compelled to arrange all favorable investment situations for the foreigners. It cau sed severe challenges to governments as they faced with huge difficulties in implementing the planned budgets and other policies. In addition, the governments lost huge amounts on possible receipts as a result of unfavorable incentive schemes. Similarly, the export-oriented industrialisation caused curtailment of labor wages and it led to political oppression. This strategy influenced the developing natio
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Pavement Design - Term Paper Example The Structural Number is a value that applies to the overallÃ pavement structure, but for a complete design it is a prerequisite to get from this value to the individual layer thicknesses. This is handled using an equation of the type shown: and can be adapted to any number of pavement layers, since each expression (such as a2D2M2) in the formula corresponds to a single layer, so that the variables in the expression correspond to the characteristics of that layer. The subscript number used in the expression simply indicates which layer is meant, with the numbering beginning at the top of the pavement structure. The variables represent the following: The layer and drainage coefficients are values that should reflect characteristics of the material used to construct that pavement layer. The thicknesses of the individual layers are effectively what is used to design equation, and the Structural Number, to figure out. Since the layer coefficient represents the strength of the material, this is the primary variable that factors in the type of material to use for each layer. For design purposes, layer coefficients are typically determined empirically based on the performance of the material. Agencies often set specific layer coefficient values for commonly used materials as a standard design policy. Some typical layer coefficient values are:Hot mix asphalt Ã¢â¬â 0.44, road mix (low stability) Ã¢â¬â 0.20, aggregate base Ã¢â¬â 0.13, engineered fill Ã¢â¬â 0.10 Since the layer coefficient can be affected by material properties as well as the position of the layer in which the material will be used, in some cases different values might be appropriate for local conditions. A drainage coefficient is a value assigned to a pavement layer that represents its relative loss of strength due toÃ drainage characteristicsÃ and exposure to moisture saturation. Layers that
Monday, July 22, 2019
Comparison Between Two Paintings Essay During the 14th century, when the beginning of the Renaissance took place, Florence was one of the main political, economic, and artistic cities in Europe. The Black Death, the plague that reduced the population of Florence, and the difficulties Florence encountered by this time explain the heavy influence of gothic style in architecture and the elegance found in every artwork created in this era. Florence was one of the top European cities when it came to painting, because it had the greatest school of painting where many important artists assisted. Florence, throughout the years, has always been an important influence in history and art. Even though many artists have a vast aspiration for art, each artist possesses his own criteria and methods that they acquired during the time in which they lived. Artists in Italy from the 1400s throughout 1900s shared many common techniques and skills that were characterized by their era. This period brings a new perspective of life to the European countries in the early fourteenth-century. By this time, people in Italy thought that a new and contemporary era had begun with a new style in painting and architecture and a new evolution in music, science, philosophy, and literature as well. Lorenzo di Credi, is an Italian painter who belonged to the Renaissance period of the 1400s. Lorenzo di Credi, who lived in Florence, was learning about this new era that had a huge impact in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This new era had an advanced development in society and a rise of civic culture. A new sense of realism in art, new discoveries in the material world, and new more joyous vision of the world around them were taking place during the era. The Renaissance influenced the social, economic, spiritual, scientific, and religious aspect of Italy. Lorenzo, who started to have a special interest in art when he was in Florence by the 1450s, was already starting to produce his own paintings. When Lorenzo started his vocation as an artist, he always had a special interest in portraits. Ã¢â¬Å"He is known primarily for his devotional paintings, although he was also much in demand as a portrait painter and was a sensitive draughtsman. Ã¢â¬ Lorenzo also started painting in oil, which was a new technique that arose in the Renaissance period. This new technique was usually painted in wood or canvas. Oil has a deep, intense tone and has hard, enamel-like surfaces. With oil, painters could also demonstrate the glowing and the light and, if needed, they could arrange any possible mistake or part they wanted to change because oil dries very slowly. This technique is not easy to adapt and adjust, but this did not keep Lorenzo from painting with it. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not known how oil painting was first developed, but in Western Europe there are indications of its use from at least the 12th century AD, and it was widely used from the Renaissance. Oil was also very popular because with it, artists could produce the finest clarity of colour. Artists manipulate the oil using stiff brushes made out of hog hair. Lorenzo was recognized for possessing patience when working in his paintings, he did not only use oil, he also adapted other methods of painting that required a lot of skill. A perfect example of a famous artwork of Lorenzo di Credi is Portrait of a Young Women. In the Renaissance, women were not lucky to live in Florence if they wanted to be involved in society. Woman by this era were just a subject of men. The Portrait of a Young Women exhibits a widow woman. When looking at the painting, one can find a variety of characteristics that lead the viewers to think her husband has died. In the Renaissance era women in Italy dressed very elegantly, wearing long gowns with baggy and loose fitting dresses. Woman used to wear very complex fabrics that covered their entire body. Wool was usually the dominant fabric woman in Italy used to wear in different types of quality and colors. This young woman in the painting is wearing a long, simple black dress with long sleeves and a black veil on the head. The dress may not seem extravagant because she is dressed as a widow. The dress does not contain any important detail, but stills looks elegant. Besides her clothing, her appearance does not demonstrate a positive one. The look on her face and the body language the painting resembles has a negative connotation. It is said that this woman was Lorenzo di CrediÃ¢â¬â¢s sister-in-law. She is also holding a ring in her left hand, which one can assume is her wedding ring. The way she holds and places her hands leads the viewer to think she is thinking about him, she is recalling him. The look on her face, her eyes, nose, and mouth are all-static, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any positive expression. When looking at the eyes, one cannot tell where she is looking at. One may think Lorenzo was imitating Leonardo Da VinciÃ¢â¬â¢s painting Mona Lisa. It is said that Lorenzo admired and followed LeonardoÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings. When looking at LorenzoÃ¢â¬â¢s paining, one can relate with her because of the rigorousness body. Her hands and her face are painted with in an accurate manner. LorenzoÃ¢â¬â¢s skills are perfectly demonstrated in this painting, one can see the shadows all over he painting and the different tones of colors he uses in his work. The young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body is so realistic that one can even see the perfect nails and the wrinkles in her hands. Behind the widow woman is a beautiful garden and an enjoyable view. The background contains many details in the tress, especially in the leaves. The background incorporates the mountains and the sky with a variety of tones of blues and greens. The tree behind the woman is painted in a circular way looking like a halo, which can resemble an image of the Virgin Mary. Her face looks calm and docile, which can also be associated with the Virgin Mary. After analyzing Portrait of a Young Woman from the 15th century, one is going to encounter a whole new perspective of life with new techniques and characteristics in a painter from the 20th century even though both artists are Italian. This Italian artist, Umberto Boccioni, was not only a painter; he was also involved with sculptures, theories, and literature. Even though his career came to an end very fast when he died at a young age, he still influenced many artist around the world and had a very productive career. Boccioni was from the Italian city of Verona, but he spent the majority of his childhood in Forli, Genoa, and Padua. It is not until he moves to Rome that he found his passion for art. Boccioni, inspired by Balla, relates himself a lot with landscapes and nature. Ã¢â¬Å"In his first years of activity, closely following his masterÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching, Boccioni produced oil paintings, sketches, pastels, studies in tempera, and advertising posters. Ã¢â¬ After several years he went to Paris where he got inspired by the modernity and the French metropolis, which impacted his life and his work in many ways. Boccioni was leaving in a new era were the Futurism, art movement, was taking place. The Futurism movement had a great influence in his artwork; it later became a distinguished characteristic in all of his paintings and his career as an artist. He established this movement, so by demonstrating his painting with this new movement, he also inspired other artists to follow the Futurism. Self-Portrait was painted in Rome in the 1905 when Boccioni was twenty-three years old. In BoccioniÃ¢â¬â¢s famous painting, one can see Umberto Boccioni well dressed in black also with a black, flat hat on his head. The painting does not show the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s parts with clarity and the painting only covers less than half of his body. The way Boccioni paints himself is in a more modern manner using vivid colors in the background and in his face. This portrait is also painted with oil, but this time on a canvas instead of wool. Oil on canvas was the other method artist used in the 1400s, but still was popular in the 20th century. One can see that oil became an important gadget for artists in their paintings and is still currently in use by many artists at the present time. BoccioniÃ¢â¬â¢s painting, Self-Portrait, reflects a change in style from light tonalities in colors to stronger contrasts of light and dark. With the way Boccioni applies the oil in this painting, one can see that the body itself is not well defined because of the longer brushstrokes. His face has a deep, serious look with his eyebrows twisted even though his black, little eyes are almost close. At the background, one can see a wall with different tone of yellow, baby blue, and the leaves of a tree. One can see that Boccioni avoided the straight line and has used complementary colors to create a vibrant effect and express a positive connotation in his portrait. Now, one can see that even though both artists are Italian, they still have very different styles; they both have different perspectives of life because of different periods the lived in. Although they both have very different techniques, one can still find some characteristics that relate them and connect their paintings. Di Credi shows a more complex, divine, almost perfect human being while Boccioni portraits himself in a more modern manner. Both paintings are portraits; yet, one can find a lot of distinction between the two of them. While the young woman shows a negative connotation, BoccioniÃ¢â¬â¢s self portrait shows a lively man with vivid colors that gets the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention immediately. Both artists found a way of establishing a human body in different styles using different methods with the brushes. Another difference in the way these two artists painted is that with di CrediÃ¢â¬â¢s painting one can see when he exactly ends in the edges. One can see that the young woman seems real, while BoccioniÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait has more shadows. In BoccioniÃ¢â¬â¢s painting is more noticeable the use of brushes than in di CrediÃ¢â¬â¢s young woman. Usually, each artist demonstrates his feelings in their paintings; or shows a current event happening in the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s era. Or they just produce something that has impact their life or them in any certain way. Zeitgeist , Ã¢â¬Å"spirit of the timesÃ¢â¬ can be related with theses two artists and their paintings because both are presenting their passion for art in the epoch in which they are living. All artworks are a reflection of the time. By analyzing and comparing these two paintings, one can find many interesting aspects of art. Art is more than a painting; art is a history behind an artwork that each artist is trying to evoke in every viewer. Art is using oneÃ¢â¬â¢s creativeness to transmit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. One can appreciate more the Art when learning the Ã¢â¬Å"spirit of the timeÃ¢â¬ ; one can comprehend the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions by analyzing every single detail in the artwork and the historical background of it. It is beyond belief how many details one can find when observing in detail each painting; one can find intriguing how every artist was impacted and influenced by the political, economical and historical aspect of their own country. The techniques, skills, and styles di Credi and Boccioni possessed are still influencing other artist nowadays. Their artworks will always be recognizable and distinguishable to people because art will never be forgotten. As centuries go by, one will still see these two artists dominating, impacting, and influencing new artists and viewers.
Compare and Contrast Essay Essay Trayvon Martin and Jordan Davis were just two young teenage boys whose lives were taken from this world. The two cases for these two boys have some similarities between each other they were two 17 year-old African-American boys, both boys were unarmed, and the stand your ground law was used for each case. There are also some differences between the cases such as George Zimmerman was found not guilty while Michael Dunn was found guilty, Zimmerman stayed on the scene of the crime while Dunn did not do the same, and last eye witnesses were present to DunnÃ¢â¬â¢s case but Zimmerman had zero eye witness. This is the twenty-first century yet we still have hate towards other races. In February 26, 2012 Ã¢â¬Å"Trayvon Martin a seventeen year old African American boy went to the store for some candy and a soft drink. George Zimmerman a Hispanic man was the neighborhood watch captain for the Retreat at Twin LakesÃ¢â¬ (HLNtv.com). Now in November 23, 2012 Michael Dunn a White man Ã¢â¬Å"leaving a wedding reception for his son pulled into a gas station for wine and chips next to the SUV Jordan DavisÃ¢â¬ another seventeen year old African American boy Ã¢â¬Å"and three of his friends were inÃ¢â¬ (CNN.com). Zimmerman was monitoring the neighborhood when he calls 911 to report Ã¢â¬Å"a suspicious person.Ã¢â¬ He was Ã¢â¬Å"instructed to not get out or approach the personÃ¢â¬ who was. Martin. Zimmerman Ã¢â¬Å"disregarded the instructions given to him by the police and moments later shot MartinÃ¢â¬ and unarmed boy (CNN.com). If he was unarmed walking back to his house how could he have had any intention of being aggressive towards another man? In Dunn case he got into an argument with Davis and his friends about the loud music asking them to turn it down. Dunn said he Ã¢â¬Å"saw Davis reach down in his passenger seat to pull out a 12 or 20 gauge shotgun.Ã¢â¬ So Ã¢â¬Å"Dunn grabbed his gun an open fired ten bullet, three of which struck Davis.Ã¢â¬ Later when the car was searched no gun was found in the car (usatoday.com). Davis just like Martin was an unarmed boy. In the presence of both cases Zimmerman and Dunn both found there selves in a self-defense situation in other terms the Ã¢â¬Å"stand your ground lawÃ¢â¬ (huffingtonpost.com). The Zimmerman case was considered self-defense but he would not have had to defend himself if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t approach Martin. Also when Martin was unarmed what did Zimmerman need to defend himself of? Dunn on the other hand was not in a calm state of mind he was the Ã¢â¬Å"prosecutor portrayed him as a gunman whose Ã¢â¬Å"blood started to boilÃ¢â¬ because an armed teenager had disrespected himÃ¢â¬ (usatoday.com). Even though Dunn thought Davis had a gun he should not have fired off ten rounds rapidly. Dunn could not have been defending him and his wife when the teenagers were unarmed. They were no harm to Dunn and his wife. Zimmerman was the neighborhood watch men and was patrolling the street when he saw Martin. There were not one eye witnesses to seeing what happened at the scene besides Zimmerman a nd Martin who was dead. The only thing they had to go off of was the bruises forming and blood running from the back of his head, also the recording of the gun shot from the police recording of ZimmermanÃ¢â¬â¢s phone call. In DunnÃ¢â¬â¢s case he was at a gas station with people around including the four men he was talking to about the loud Ã¢â¬Å"rap crapÃ¢â¬ music as he called it (CNN.com). Usually when you flee the scene of a crime it means you are guilty. After Zimmerman got out and came up too Martin and defended himself by shooting him. He stayed at the scene was it because no one was around and he already called the cops, and he knew that with his head bloody it was constituted as the Ã¢â¬Å"stand your ground law?Ã¢â¬ As for Dunn he fled forty miles back to his motel as soon as he shot off ten rounds. There he took Ã¢â¬Å" his dog for a walk, ordered pizza, and drank rum and colaÃ¢â¬ (CNN.com) Zimmerman was found not guilty after a year and six months went by. The six women jury found George Zimmerman not guilty. The jury had three choices to convict Zimmerman of Ã¢â¬Å"guilty of second degree murder, to find him guilty of the lesser charge manslaughter, or to find him not guilty. The jurors deliberated for more than sixteen hours total, including the thirteen on Saturday aloneÃ¢â¬ (CNN.com). Now for Dunn even though he had pretty similar crimes as Zimmerman he was found guilty. Dunn received Ã¢â¬Å"a minimum of twenty years on one count, another twenty year count, and another minimum of twentyÃ year countÃ¢â¬ (usatoday). Works Cited Neale, Rick. Fla. USA TODAY. Larry Kramer, 16 Feb. 2014. Web. 9 Apr. 2014.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Effectiveness of Active Learning Over Passive Learning In this study, there has been a thorough examination and careful observations which show, that within passive learning although a primitive form of learning there is also some kind of active learning taking place. There is no clear difference between the active and passive learning and there is some kind of active learning taking place within the passive learning which is unconsciously being ignored. In reality, active learning is the measurement of the extent to which the learner is challenged to use his or her mental abilities while learning. The effect of various teaching and learning strategies show the clear impact of active forms of teaching and learning techniques on higher level students but there are still some factors that are posing a great barrier to active learning at secondary levels. These barriers involve curriculum, content, teaching pedagogy, school and classroom environment, behaviour, social factors and new electronic media (mobiles and social networking sites) be ing the worst. In order to create a better active learning environment within secondary schools, there is strong need for giving more autonomy to teachers within the classes. There are also some factors which have been discussed that could influence the students involvement within the classes which also hinders the active form of teaching and learning. There is also a need to realise that there are several teaching and learning styles that one could use to gain same learning skills that are again ignored unconsciously. Each and every learning activity has a different processes that could initiate the active form of learning within the brain even though they are regarded as active or passive learning in the real world. Teachers also have to realise that there are some students who prefer to learn through a passive style of learning as opposed to an active style of learning which may hinder them in a number of ways. Context: I have been teaching in a comprehensive girls school where 70% of the students are from an Minority Ethnic Background. The school accommodates over 1000 students with over 100 teachers from diverse back grounds. I was initially covering for a member of staff, when the position became vacant and I applied and was appointed to the post. The problem arose when I began teaching MFL as there had been a tendency of learning through passive teaching over a number of years. The behaviour in general of the pupils was good with some odd occasions of bad behaviour. There was a mix tenedency and attitude towards innovation and active learning by the students and the language faculty. The majority of my students were from an ethnic background, learning to improve their Urdu language. The major problem students faced was in relation to reading and writing skills because of the alien nature of the writing style of Urdu language. The students speaking and listening skills were very good due to their social environment and the electronic media around them. There is a huge difference between two sets of skills and it is very hard to correlate most of the time. There were students who were forced to learn Urdu by either parents or their peers and were there without any love or passion for the subject. Also the students were not willing to accept the new changes such as the new teacher, teaching style and the presence of opposite gender within their classes. There was a change within the school at management level and was a move towards a change in teaching methodology and assessment. The higher management was trying to implement the OFSTED lesson observation criteria throughout the school. The behaviour management system also went under changes and some staff members had problems in understanding and implementing them within the classes. Alongside these factors there was a huge task of assessing the pupils within all the four essential skills within MFL (Listening, speaking, reading and writing). I had few lesson observations that did not go well because of the behaviour problem and by being defensive as I was teaching more passively than active. I had implemented various strategies within the class of which some worked very well and some of them were disaster. One of them was the introduction of the active form of learning and teaching upon which some classes appreciated the new strategies and techniques where as some gave an insight of the problem that could arise when introducing the active form of learning and teaching within the classes. Analysis of Problem: Active learning is probably more striking for learners than passive forms of leaning. Learners are supposed to be more motivated and interested when their mental activity is challenged and when they can make decisions about their own learning. The retention capabilities are also greater in case of active learning as compared to passive learning as per figure 1.By being involved in some of the decisions related to their own learning the learners can connect to their prior knowledge and their needs more optimally. As a consequence, they will learn all the kinds of valuable skills, such as social skills, decision making skills and taking responsibility. In addition, by finding out things independently, they can follow their own interests and motivation. In reality, active learning is the measurement of the extent to which the learner is challenged to use his or her mental abilities while learning. The passive learner does the same in less content as passive learning is mainly involved in the initial phases where as active learning enhances the passive learning. There are various types of learning skills that could structure the focus of process-oriented instruction such as cognitive skills, meta-cognitive skills and affective-motivational skills. (Simon et al, 2000). The cognitive skills involve deep learning strategies like comparing, overview skills like summarising, criticising and structuring, reviewing and generalising, schematising, and transfer skills like considering potential and essential conditions of use. Meta-cognitive skills involve planning of times and planning for leaning, realistic goal setting, orientation on goals and outcomes, regular inspection and testing and finally restarting and reflection on process and outcome. There are two main types of communication which occurs within the class named one way and two way communications. Within One-way communication, Listener has little or no opportunity to respond straight away and directly. A teacher must make assumptions about the listeners skill level, prior training, and understanding of the material being communicated. Therefore, errors like the following could be made by the teacher: making the material too difficult, making the material too simple, making assumptions which are not fully shared by the audience, thus making it impossible for them to understand what is being said. Other characteristics: faster transmission less accuracy, potential lack of common vocabulary. Within Two-way communication, there is a flow of information among and between individuals. Because of the opportunity for immediate feedback, many of the assumptions that one makes under one-way communication about skill level, prior training, and understanding of the material being communicated get tested immediately. Other characteristics: slower transmission, greater accuracy, time to develop a common vocabulary. According to Bergquist et al (1975), Psychological effects of one-way communication on students. Frustration the student cannot easily communicate or ask for clarification of teacher information. Apathy a lack of involvement and interest in what is going on. Fear students dont want to talk in front of the group for fear of being put down or for fear of making the teacher angry. Dependence students expect the teacher to give all the necessary information. Most become unable to judge the value of the information. Hostility and/or aggression-they may cheat or quit coming to class Three other learning styles are more likely to result in classroom participation; they are: Collaborative: This style is typical of the student who feels he can learn the most by sharing his ideas and talents. He cooperates with teachers and peers and likes to work with others. He sees the classroom as a place for social interaction as well as content learning. Participant: This style is characteristic of the student who wants to learn subject content and likes to go to class. He takes responsibility for getting the most out of class and participates with others when told to do so. He feels that he should take part in as much of the class related activity as possible, but he does little that is not part of the subject outline. Independent: This response style is characteristic of the student who likes to think for himself. He prefers to work on his own, but he will listen to the ideas of others in the classroom. He learns the content he feels is important and is confident in his learning abilities Research shows that students do not have just one style but that instead they have several in varying degrees and in various situations. It is not necessary to have a battery of psychological instruments to assess these styles, since an awareness of your students behaviours will give you clues as to which ones are operating. A more formal way of obtaining this information is to give each student the description of the various learning styles (without the descriptive word) and ask them to rank the styles on a scale of most and least like them. A tabulation of that information may give you useful information about the predominate learning styles in your classroom. (Bergquist et al, 1975) Students exhibit a number of learning styles in their approach to the classroom. Three that are related to a lack of involvement are: Avoidant: This response style is typical of a student who is not interested in learning subject content in the traditional classroom. He does not participate with students and teachers in the classroom. He is uninterested or overwhelmed by what goes on in the classes. Competitive: This response style is exhibited by the student who learns material in order to perform better than others in the class. He feels he must compete with other students in the class for the rewards of the classroom, such as grades or teachers attention. He views the classroom as a win-lose situation where he must always win. Other students are unlikely to join this student in participation because of the win- lose nature of the interaction. Dependent: This style is characteristic of the student who shows little intellectual curiosity and who learns only what is required. He sees teachers and peers as sources of structure and support. He looks to authority figures for guidelines and wants to be told what to do. Consequently, this student is unlikely to initiate or have much that is original to say in class discussions Analysis of Intervention (Solution): Learning to collaborate and learning from collaboration means acquiring skills like dividing tasks between group members, leading a group, learning together, monitoring group progress, defining group goals and group learning goals, negotiating and co-structuring knowledge, coordinating cognitive and social communicative actions and creating a supportive collaborative climate (Simon et al, 2000). Another important factor is the ability to regulate own learning which is the regular increase of independence in thinking and learning through systematic scaffolding. Simons and Zuijlen (1995) have suggested the following sequence: working independently, Learning strategically and self directed learning. When working independently the learning goals, the learning strategies, the time and place of leaning, the way of testing and feedback is determined by the teacher or learning environment. Students just have to fulfil assignments and learning will occur if and when they obey. (Simon et al, 2000) When learning strategically, students should have freedom of choice related to the learning strategy such as what kinds of learning approach to take, when and where learning will take place. In self-directed learning students have more freedom even though the learning goals remain under teacher control and for example with respect to choice goals, self testing and or feedback/judgement procedures. As described by the Simon et al (1995), In the beginning stages of any learning the simpler forms of independence should occupy more time than the more complex ones with a gradual increase of time for more complex forms. Whereas more complex forms of independence can regulate and only be practiced with respect to themes where one has relative high level of expertise. Simply there should be more independent work with some strategic learning relating to topics at beginning stages which will provide more room for strategic learning, also in relation to less familiar topics and some room for self directed learning about familiar topics. More importantly, by demonstrating and discussing them with each other on a regular basis, the important thinking, learning and regulation skills are made public. One of the main obstacles to learning and think is that these processes are hidden and remain invisible (new learning ref), the students dont realise that all human beings have many different ways to approach tasks instead of believing their way is the only possible way for learning new things. Interventions aimed at fostering students development of active general self regulated learning and conditional or metacognitive knowledge about learning have involved specifically designed learning how to learn programs as well as integrated programs where learning how to learn is embedded within regular discipline instruction. Simpson et al, (1997) especially mention the problems of limited transfer of the learned strategies to new situations and the lack of long term evaluation data. One well know successful program of that kind emphasise integrated learning to think, integrated learning to learn and integrated learning to regulate learning and thinking (Simons et al, 1997). In integrated programme, students are induced to activate their existing knowledge and strategies about learning, to reflect on their own and alternative approaches to learning, and on the impact of different learning styles on the quality of learning outcomes in their particular discipline area as well as in general. A major advantage of integrated programme is that they can be implemented with, and benefit learners of all ages, all levels of development and across all fields of study. Cognitive interventions during regular instructions rely on reflection, persuasion, awareness raising as well as constructive frictions (Vermunt Verloop, 1999) in order to raise challenge students possible misconception about learning. Carrying out such interventions during the actual process of learning is particularly well suited to raise students awareness of the relationships between learning strategies and learning outcomes. Evaluation (analysis of findings/evaluation of impact): Active learning is defined as a form of learning in which the learner uses opportunities to decide about aspects of learning process or the extent to which the learner is challenged to use his or her mental abilities while learning. In reality, there is no clear difference between active and passive learning. It is more a dimension a matter of less and more than dichotomy. In other words in active learning the learners make their own time planning, they choose learning goals and activities they like, they test their progress, they take care of their learning and understanding on their own, and they reflect on errors and successes. Thus active learning also involves preparation, execution, regulation, control, feedback and maintenance of learning activities by learners. (Simon et al, 2000) In independent active learning, it is not so much the number and quality of decisions about learning that count but how much activity is asked from the learner. Are the students figuring out things on their own? Are they working without teacher supervision? Are they working together as a group? Are they thinking while learning? The goals and kinds of activities, the control and regulations as well as the feedback and maintenance of the learning are under teacher control. The major findings after the research show the same findings as Riemersma Veugelers, 1997; Van Hout-Wolters, 1994; Veugelers, 1999 (cited in Simons et al, 2000) have identified a number of factors contributing to the difficulties in the implementation of active forms of learning. School Management and organisation: Some schools provide very few opportunities for active learning to students because of too many traditional teacher directed classes and insufficient self study hours in their time table. School experience problems with changing the curriculum to fit in with the learning-to-learn lessons or with integrating learning to learn instructions in the content lessons. Teachers: Many teachers are not highly motivated to give attention to active learning as they do not see the benefits of it within the subject matter and argue that these activities take up too much valuable time. Other teachers want to concentrate all their attention on the instruction of content knowledge as otherwise it will affect their results or grades. This results in creating chaos amongst the students relating various new forms of teaching and learning. The use of active learning within the class makes teaching more intensive and time consuming, while teacher salaries remain the same. Also not all the teachers possess sufficient knowledge and skills to foster active learning and to supervise their students in active self directed learning. Most teachers would need to develop forms of instruction which are fundamentally different from those they are currently using and familiar with. Particularly the greatest barrier of all is the fact that faculty members efforts to employ active learning involve risk that students will not participate, learn sufficient content or use higher-order thinking. There is also a misconception or fears that faculty members will feel a loss of control, lack necessary skills, or be criticised for teaching in unconventional ways. However, each barrier or obstacle and type of risk can be successfully overcome through thoughtful and careful planning. Learners are not always motivated to invest much time and energy in gaining the new skills either. They do not always recognise the usefulness of these skills, or they dread the needed effort to learn them (Rabinowits , Freeman, Cohen, 1992, (cited in Simons et al, 2000)). Students often hold strong beliefs and persistent approaches to learning especially failure fearing students prefer to learn a whole paragraph by heart than to understand and remember the main issues. Students in especially secondary schools are not very interested in the subject matter instead they go to school to meet their friends; learning seems to be more or less a side issue. Such students prefer to follow teacher directed lessons, than to engage in self directed activities. Individual differences between students create problems such as attention seeking students who attract more attention as well as causing disruption. Some students get little teacher attention during individual study hours as they ask ver y few questions and thus are offered little supervision. A failure to periodically solicit student feedback in a subject about how it is progressing. Are students getting out of the subject what they want? Are the classroom procedures and methods used well? Are there some things that you are doing which students dont like (for example, lecture, clarity of presentations, unfriendly manner)? Information on these factors not only helps make the classroom atmosphere better but it also creates an atmosphere where students feel the teacher is interested in what they have to say. This has a tendency to transfer into content areas as well. Contents: There are specific learning skills which are considered most important by a school or teacher. There still appears to be a lack of good learning-material within the subject areas in which active learning is incorporated. Snow and Lohmans (1984) argument that direct training of content related cognitive strategies may be counterproductive for more able students because they have already developed effective models of learning. Therefore students were provided with opportunities to witness the mental activity of more able individuals, and then encouraged to practice the strategies with guidance in a socially supportive environment. While some students learn to self regulate their learning without much tuition or prompts, others need guidance, not only to acquire the strategies but also to develop the conditional knowledge necessary to know how, when and where to these strategies can be applied appropriately (Hattie, Biggs, Purdie, 1996; Winograd Hare, 1988, (cited in Simons et al, 2000)). There are several techniques or strategies that are regarded as Passive learning strategies used for the externalisation of mental activity such as think aloud and expert modelling that provide a learner unique insight into the thinking processes of an expert. While scaffolding, cognitive coaching, reciprocal teaching and other forms of guided learning are expected to provide the support necessary to develop the skills and confidence for independent use of techniques. Two popular strategies based on problem-solving model take account of the case study methods of instruction and guided design. Whereas other active learning pedagogies worthy of teachers use include debates, cooperative learning, role playing, drama,simmulation, and peer teaching. College teachers are commonly facing problems and complaining that the secondary school teachers are not playing their roles properly as they are wasting their time in games or activities rather than giving attention to reading or improving cognitive skills. Where schools and parents fail students at school, when they get to college they lack the capacity to concentrate on anything for longer than about 10 minutes at a time. Such students have been failed by their schools and teachers, its too late, as in many cases, for them to change and their chances of a decent education/job are already finished. Conclusions and Recommendations: Active learning is also important for teachers. Motivational and burnout problems of teachers are likely to decrease if students are more motivated and more actively engaged in their own learning. Besides, teaching becomes more intellectually challenging when students are learning actively and independently. An excellent first step in promoting active teaching and learning is to select strategies with that one can feel comfortable. Low-risk strategies, on the other hand, are structured and planned, naturally of short duration, focused on subject matter that is neither too abstract nor too controversial, and well-known to both the students and the faculty members. The modification of traditional lectures (Penner 1984) is one way to incorporate active learning in the classroom. Discussion in class is regarded as one of the most widespread strategies promoting active learning with good reason. If the objectives of a subject are to encourage long-term retention of information, to inspire students toward further learning, to allow students to apply information in new settings, or to develop students thinking skills, then discussion is preferable to lecture (McKeachie et al. 1986). Bergquist et al (1975) have described the following factors within Getting Students Involved in the Classroom. Encourage exclusive dialogue with the teacher and not between students. This fosters a lack of involvement since students must compete with each other for the kings ear. Front to back seating arrangements encourage one-way communication. It is hard to talk to the back of someone elses head. Front to back seating arrangements discourage students from talking among themselves but they do focus attention on the teacher . Students who feel pressurised into attending every session are less likely to want to participate. An overemphasis on grades and grading, constantly stressing the importance of material for the midterm or final, how important a good grade in your subject is, and how much you appreciate good students will lead to a lack of involvement. Students are less likely to be involved when the name of the game is to get a grade and not learning something that might be of value to them. If active self regulated learning is to increase in school, at university and in the workplace, there is a need for learners to be equipped with the skills, confidence and commitment for active learning across tasks and situations. It also requires the educational context to provide the opportunities and affordance for active and independent self regulated learning to take place and be valued. All of the above help create an atmosphere where students do not want to get involved (The non-involvement cycle). Consequently, they begin to behave that way, which leads the teacher to assume they are apathetic and uninterested, thus the teacher continues to treat them in ways that lead to more apathy and uninvolvement. Thus a self-fulfilling prophecy begins to emerge. Even though active learning provides a great benefit within the teaching and learning arena the question still remains whether the students at secondary school are ready for this change. Research completed with higher level students indicated that when the learning skills and behaviour reached a mature state the majority of the students were there to learn. Whereas at secondary schools, there are several issues that require attention at a higher level such as behaviour issues within schools and classes, teachers training, teachers right with in the classes, more freedom with the curriculum, specially designed curriculum to promote active teaching and learning including others. In a recent article in the Guardian news paper, Mortimore, P (2010) reiterates that teachers are the solution not the problem. This means the profession attracting, and keeping, the most talented and the best-motivated people. It also means the government allowing teachers reasonable autonomy in how they teach. If the officials address the following issues, there will possibility of promoting active learning at the secondary level.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Walk A Mile With A Disability Disability Experiment As of 5:00 p.m. on October 1 I became a hard-of-hearing (as opposed to deaf) mute. I achieved the hearing impairment simply by wearing earplugs and became mute simply by not saying a word for the rest of that day, as well as the following morning. The first discovery that I made was that my family (and probably everyone else) listens to the television at a ridiculously loud volume. Even though both of my ear canals were blocked, I had no problems understanding what was taking place on the programs that we watched. However I did run into some trouble around dinner. We (my future in-laws) were saying the blessing, but I had to keep one eye open so I would know when the prayer was over. Another interesting thing was that while driving with the ear plugs in, I became more aware of the vibrations of my truck, the tires, and the bumps in the road. My tires are not the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ highway tire-even though they are perfectly legal-and they generate quite a bit shaking. This shaking is odd to me though because it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so obvious that I notice it any other day, but only when my hearing is impaired. The music in my truck also took on a new role. Usually I use my speakers to drowned out the moaning of the tires, but now I have discovered that they can be used as a massage. I have felt them thump against my back before, but that thump absent from sound became an aggressive back pounding. As for my driving experiences as a mute, everyone should try it as a way to defeat their road rage. It certainly stopped my meaningless comments, not to mention I felt better about myself when I got home. My biggest, yet far from profound, discovery in this experiment is related to speaking. Since speech was no option for communication, I opted for the dry erase board as a form of communication. When writing is the only available form of communication ( I am ignorant of sign language) I tend to pick and choose carefully what is important enough to write down, as well as what is not. This procedure eliminates useless conversation such as sarcasm, small talk, and meaningless comments, which I have always wanted (I thought) to get rid of anyway.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Moment and Inwardness I. Introduction In The Concept of Anxiety, SÃ¯ ¿ ½ren Kierkegaard deals with human anxiety about the possibility posed by freedom as it relates to sinfulness and spiritual progress. This paper will show that Kierkegaard?s concept of the moment and his prescription for inwardness, both in the context of spirituality, are connected. Importantly, inwardness depends on the moment and the possibility of transition that does not take place in time, transition that seems sudden if spotted from a temporal perspective. First, this paper will make sense of Kierkegaard?s concepts of time, eternity, and the moment, which will be an interpretation taken from his discussion at the first part of chapter three. Second, it will explain what his concept of inwardness is and what it means for human life, which will be based on text from chapter four, section two, subsection two (?Freedom Lost Pneumatically?). Finally, it will use those points to explain the connection between the moment and inwardness and then point o ut the importance of that connection. II. Time, Eternity, and the Moment Time and eternity are important concepts that correspond to the finite and infinite aspects of human life. Time is the realm occupied by the human body, the human psyche, and all worldly affairs. In everyday thought people spatialize the events in this finite realm in terms of the past, present, and future. Eternity is the realm of the spirit that synthesizes the body and psyche, and spirit is the aspect of human life that belongs to the infinite. Kierkegaard thinks of eternity strictly in an infinite sense and wants to avoid regarding as eternity the indefinite passing of time. The inspiring concept that begins in the analysis of ... ...s nature. One angle on this is that abstracting the moment from spirituality, namely, to focus on the temporal moment involving worldly affairs, is to prevent spiritual inwardness to be reached. Another angle is to understand that with spirit it is possible to understand the future with an immediate sense of its possibility to go about life as an earnest task, which means that one does not need to be anxious about the future and idly waiting for it to come in order to understand human possibility. Finally, it should be added that since spirituality is best regarded from the immediacy of the moment, understanding the moment helps one understand Kierkegaard?s goal in this work of preparing his readers for understanding the leap of faith. Bibliography Kierkegaard, SÃ¯ ¿ ½ren. The Concept of Anxiety. Trans. Reidar Thomte. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Investigate notions of sisters and sisterhood within Top Girls In Act 1 the women at the dinner party, speak of their suffering in the past, but they all relate to Marlene and to each other as a sisterhood of the present, even though the women represent contemporary figures supposedly alive in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s in England. Lady Nijo and Pope Joan are similar in that they both had babies in difficult situations, and both stood up for their rights as women. The portrayal of these women contrasts with the traditional and Ã¢â¬ËclassicalÃ¢â¬â¢ representation of women in plays. In the past women characters have been presented as dependent on men and limited by the conversations of a male dominates world. A typical example of this is seen in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, with both Gertrude and Ophelia saying Ã¢â¬ËI will obey my lordÃ¢â¬â¢ however in Top Girls the characters think independently and believe in themselves and show support for their sisters. The characters are individualised which is dramatically interesting as they open to a new experience on the stage. The modern women is shown in Top Girls to be living in the time of shifting priorities and expectations, challenging the female Ã¢â¬ËrolesÃ¢â¬â¢. An example of this is Louise in act 2 saying, Ã¢â¬ËShe has a different style, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a new kindÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Many themes that run throughout Top Girls relate to the time when the play was written. An example of this and also an example of sisters in the play is the argument between Joyce and Marlene. Marlene is an individualistic and through her own determination and effort has managed to lift herself out of working class environment to middle class. Class structure, as seen by Marlene, is the cause of oppression and the row between the sisters is exaggerated and simplified with Marlene saying Ã¢â¬ËI hat the working classÃ¢â¬â¢ and Joy replying Ã¢â¬Ë I spit when I see a Rolls Royce.Ã¢â¬â¢ Marlene shows support for Thatcher saying Ã¢â¬ËSheÃ¢â¬â¢s a tough lady, MaggieÃ¢â¬ ¦. Certainly gets my vote.Ã¢â¬â¢ Which can be interpreted as, her own success could have been due to the encouragement and initiative of an individual. Act 3 reveals aspects of MarleneÃ¢â¬â¢s life that could be questioned. She left home at the age of 17, she cut herself of from all family ties, she hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been home for 6 years and AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival in the office is a complete inconvenience to her. In many respects Joyce can be interpreted as a failure too, she is worn out, let down by her husband and has a mixed success to look after Angie. The history of the sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s social and family background is grim.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Race and ethnicity are important concepts and plays a great deal among our society. Very few of us are aware of the difference between race and ethnicity. Many of us assumed that is the same definition. In Sociology this terms have a very specific and different meaning. Race: Is your biological features this can include your skin color, eye and hair color, as well as a tendency toward developing certain diseases. Race canÃ¢â¬â¢t be changed or disguised. Race does not have customs or globally learned behaviors. In other words race refers to only your genetic history and identifiable physical characteristics that are separate and distinct from other races. For example Hispanics are always generalized as Puerto Rican. Skin color does not necessarily connect to your cultural background. Ethnicity: Is a concept referring to a shared culture and way of life. This can be reflected in language, religion, material culture such as clothing and food and cultural products such as art and music. Ethnicity is often a major source of social cohesion and social conflict. Ethnicity is not just a personÃ¢â¬â¢s race. For example the term Caucasian means white, but this term doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t describe a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnicity. We can have three white people from different parts of the world like Canada, Ireland, and England. Just by looking at them we canÃ¢â¬â¢t determine from what part of the world they are from. But, if we give them appropriate items from their culture, like religion, language, food preparation and preferences, then is easy to determine their origin. Ethnicity is about tradition, behaviors and customs. We can change our ethnicity but not our race. Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common cultural bond. Ethnic groups doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist simply because of the common national or cultural origin of the group, they develop because of their unique historical and social experiences, which became the basis for the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic identity. For example prior to immigration to the United States, any group of immigrants did not think of themselves as a distinct group with common interest and experiences. However, the process of immigration and the experiences they faced as a group in the United States, including discrimination, created a new identity for the group. Some examples of ethnic groups include Italian Americans, Polish Americans, Mexican Americans, and Irish Americans. Other ethnic groups are found in other societies such as in Afghanistan and Iraq, whose ethnicity is base on religious differences. Like ethnicity, race is a socially constructed category. A race is a group that is treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics. Because of their biological or cultural characteristics, which are labeled as inferior by powerful groups in society, a race is often singled out for differential and unfair treatment. It is not the biological characteristics that define racial groups, but how they have been treated historically and socially. Society assigns people to racial categories such as blacks, whites, Hispanics etc. not because of science, logic or fact, but, because of opinion and social experience. Hispanics and blacks are perceived as minority group who share common characteristics like low status in society, there is more poverty among them, and low education standards. A minority group is any distinct group in society that shares common characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination. A group may be classified as minority on the basis of ethnicity, race, sexual preference, age, or class status. It is important to note that a minority group is not necessarily the minority in terms of numbers, but it is a group that holds a low status in relation to other groups in society. (Regardless of the size). The group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society is called The Dominant group. One of the problems that have an impact on race and ethnicity is stereotypes. It is an oversimplified opinion and judgment about individuals of a social group. It is also a tendency where humans characterize a person of a race or ethnic group based on assumptions criticizing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance. Some examples of this are: Chinese and Indians are good in math and sciences, but are poor in English and humanities, White Americans are lazy, obese, and judgmental towards other races and are highly materialistic. Italians are always in a mob, Irish people are always drunk and African Americans are drug peddlers, thugs, good dancers, and good at athletics. Additionally, there are other forms of stereotypes such as: gender stereotypes that are based on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s gender and some examples are: men make great business leaders and women make good homemakers, men are masculine and strong, women are good cooks, they want to have babies and make great nurses. Another stereotype is social class that is based on social status in society and some examples of this are: homeless people have behavioral problems, are into substance abuse, lazy and smelly, working class are naive and not street smart, and upper class are judged as being shallow, arrogant and untrustworthy There are several sociological theories about why prejudice, discrimination and racism exist. Prejudice and discrimination are two similar terms that deal with negative misjudgments and disrespect. Prejudice is unreasonable feelings and attitudes toward a social group based on preconceived preference without any knowledge or facts about that groupÃ¢â¬â¢s race or ethnicity. There have been researches that state the origin of prejudice began from learning and observing manners from peers, parents, and the media. For example, if children imitate their parents complaining against another individual of a different nationality, then that child will mature and think negative ideas about those members of that culture. In the media, movies, magazines, books and newspapers depicted some nationalities in pessimistic images; for example, Japanese Americans were shown as sneaky and untrustworthy and American Indians were presented as scoundrels or submissive characters. As for discrimination, it is a behavior of contempt and insolence against members of a group rather than show consideration for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s merit. An example of this is a landlord doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t rent an apartment to someone because that individual is mentally retarded and a property manager checks the credit records of all Hispanics and black applicants and sues small credit problems as an excuse to refuse to rent an apartment, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always look at the records of white applicants and overlooks small credit problems in their records. Racism is a term where negative attitudes and behaviors are linked together and makes an individual belonging to a racial or ethnic group as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own group. Furthermore, there are many types of racism that exist in society such as: old-fashion racism, which deals with physical violence; aversive racism, is being stealthy or not interacting with someone of another race or ethnic; laissez-faire racism which occurred after the Second World War and during the 1950s , is a subtle but constant negative stereotyping of minorities, a tendency for whites to blame a racial group for gaps in socioeconomic standings, occupational achievement and educational achievement, and clear resistance to meaningful policy efforts designed to improve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s racially oppressive social conditions and practices. The next racism is color-blindness because an individual affected by this type of racism prefers to ignore lawful racial, ethnic, cultural and other differences and insists that racial issues in America will go away if only race is ignored all together. Lastly, institutional racism is negative judgment and coercion of one racial or ethnic group by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s existing institutions based on presumed inferiority of the oppressed group. An example of this is racial filing, where if an African American or Hispanic individual is arrested, they are considered to serve more sentence time than that of Whites and Asians. In fact, an African American or Hispanic who commits a crime, are more likely to get arrested than a White person committing the exact same crime. Yet, there are three types of sociological theories that study on the origins of racism, discrimination and prejudice. They are: functionalists, symbolic interaction and conflict. First, functionalist theory has its origins in the work of Emile Durkheim and it interprets each part of society as a whole. Meaning, that the different parts of society are organized to fill the different needs and each has particular consequences for the form and shape of society. Also, from this perspective, if there is disorganization in the system, such as deviant behavior, it will affect all other parts and create social problems, which later lead to social change. So, in order for society to maintain stability, racial and ethnic minorities must assimilate into society. Meaning, that this perspective assumes that in order for minority groups to be fully pledged members of society, they must adopt the culture of the dominant society and thus give up their own culture. But, assimilation stands in dissimilarity with pluralism, which is the maintenance and perseverance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture, language, traits, practices, art, etc. Second, symbolic interaction theories have two types of issues addressing it: one, the role of social interaction in reducing racial and ethnic hostility and second, how race and ethnicities are socially constructed. So, contact theory, which it was originated with the psychologist Gordon Allport, argues that Whites and other minorities groups will reduce racism, discrimination and prejudice with each other, but only through these three conditions. First, the contact must be between individuals of equal status and both parties must interact on equal grounds. Second, the contacts between equals must be sustained; short-term contact will not decrease racism, discrimination and prejudice. Lastly, social norms favoring equality must be agreed upon by the participants. The third theory, conflict theory is based on class conflicts, which are inherent and fundamental part of society. Also, theorists argue that class inequality must be reduced to lessen racial and ethnic conflict in society. The current Ã¢â¬Å"class versus raceÃ¢â¬ controversy has caused concerns of whether class or race is more important in explain inequality and its consequences of whether they are of equal importance. Those focused on class conflict, such as sociologist William Julius Wilson, have argued that class and changes in the economic structure are sometimes more important than race in improving the life chances for different groups. On the other hand, some sociologists such as Bonilla-Silva and Feagin argue the opposite. They say that race has been and is relatively more important than class Ã¢â¬â in explaining and accounting for inequality and conflict in society and that directly addressing the question of race forthrightly is the only way to solve the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s race problems. Also, another perspective called intersection perspective refers to the interactive or combined effects of racism, classism and gender in the coercion of individuals. This perspective notes that not only are the effects of gender and race intertwined, but also both are intertwined with the effects of class. So, this is the reason why class, along with race and gender, are integral components of social structure, according to intersection perspective. Lastly, there have been individuals in history that have formed groups and organizations in order to attain ethnical and racial equality. These groups help show everyone that no matter what race or ethnicity someone belongs to, if individuals are willing to fight for civil rights and privileges, then they can make a change in society, no matter what consequences are in store. First, the civil rights movement was based on the passive resistance philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., learned from the philosophy of Satyagraha of the East Indian Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi (meaning Ã¢â¬Å"leaderÃ¢â¬ ). This helped African Americans and black people to fight against segregation through nonviolent techniques, such as sit-ins, marches and appealing to human conscience in calls for brotherhood, justice and equality. Even though African Americans and black people fought for racial justice and civil rights before this movement, this movement brought greater civil rights under the law to many groups: women, disabled people, and the aged. In 1955, African American mistress and NAACP secretary Rosa Parks made an impact in history when she bravely refused to relinquish her seat in the Ã¢â¬Å"White onlyÃ¢â¬ section of the Montgomery bus. In addition, most of the bus drivers were African American and thanks to the action of Rosa Parks, the famous Montgomery bus boycott, led by Martin Luther King Jr. initiated. Impetus was given to the civil rights movement and the boycott due to the unspeakable death of Emmett Till in 1954. He was a black teenager who was killed in Mississippi only for whistling at a white woman in a store. So, a group of white individuals rousted Till from his bed at the home of a relative and beat him until he was dead and unrecognizable. Then, they tied a heavy cotton gin fan around his neck and dumped him in a river. Later on, TillÃ¢â¬â¢s mother allowed a picture of his misshapen son so that society could contemplate the horrific event that occurred and no one was prosecuted for tillÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. The next movement known as La Raza Unida Party (The Race Party) was established on January 17, 1970 in Crystal City, Texas by Jose Gutierrez and Mario Compean. It centered on Chicano nationalism and in the 1970s, it campaign for better housing, work and educational opportunities for MexicanÃ¢â¬âAmericans. It was originated by the Workmen of the World and it expanded to other states, such as California and Colorado. However, the novice city council did not implement the partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ goals due to political and economic attacks from Anglo business, landowners in surrounding counties and political and economic attacks from Democratic and Republican parties. Still, La Raza Unida Party was still active and ran candidates for governor of Texas, Ramsey Muniz in 1972 and Mario Compean in 1974. But in 1972, they ran a candidate in a very competitive US Senate race in Colorado, Secundion Salazar, who received 1. 4% of votes. During the late 1970s, the party changed tactics to a more community based, grassroots, where Revolutionary Nationalist formations were seeking the unity of all Chicanos, Latinos and Native Americans in the southwestern of the United States by the proponents of the views of the Party, but not by non Chicanos, Latinos and Native Americans. Lastly, the American Indian Movement is a Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by urban Native Americans. It agenda focuses on spirituality, leadership and sovereignty and its members in 1968 are: Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Harold Goodsky, Eddie Benton-Banai, and a number of others in MinneapolisÃ¢â¬â¢ Native American community. The group was formed to address various issues concerning the Native American urban community in Minneapolis, including poverty housing, treaty issues and police harassment. In the decades since its founding, the movement had led protests advocating indigenous American interest, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activity and coordinated employment programs in cities and rural reservation communities across the United States. In conclusion do not judge a book by its cover. Each race and ethnic group brings new learning experience to our lives. Each culture allows us to grow as human beings and this is what makes America a great nation.