Sunday, August 25, 2019

Medical or Surgical Ways of Caring and Treating Decubitus Essay

Medical or Surgical Ways of Caring and Treating Decubitus - Essay Example Treatment involves debridement and control of infections. Prevention, on the other hand, involves patient repositioning, eating a balanced diet and exercising. Medical/ Surgical Ways of Caring and Treating Decubitus As a healing strategy, lying down is used to rest different body parts in a patient. When the patient rests in such a position for a long time they run the risk of developing bedsores. This is as a result of the effects of unrelieved pressure on that part of the body. These bedsores are also referred to as ulcer decubitus and can be found on any body part especially on areas with bone and cartilage (Neizgoda et al., 2006). This condition, though life-threatening, is treatable if found early. Sores caused by pressure result from inadequate supply of blood to tissues or an injury that leads to blood accumulating in the tissues. When one stays in the same position for a long time, blood supply in the areas under pressure is reduced. This causes a mild ache which is indicativ e of the obstructed flow of blood. This implies that the tissues will not get nourishment from the blood resulting in their death. If pressure is not alleviated in this area, the skin breaks and opens up creating a sore and if untreated, it can become infected (Brem et al., 2004). This paper discusses decubitus, its cause, its stages of development, how to prevent its development and how to care and treat patients with this condition. Discussion Ulcer decubitus is caused by three types of forces on a tissue. These are pressure, shear force and friction. Pressure results from a bones force on a tissue which causes the tissue to compress. Over time, the supply of blood to such tissues is inadequate leading to ischemia and cell death if left untreated in people with low immunity. When the skin stays in one place for a long time, gravity pulls down the skeletal muscles and the deep fascia resulting in shear force. This force can cut blood vessels thus depriving the tissues of nutrients which can lead to their death. Friction, on the other hand, is the force that prevents sloughing of the skin which may cause excess shedding of the epidermal layers. The situation can be even worse in conditions of excess skin moisture, which causes the epithelial cell bonds to weaken resulting in epidermal sloughing. Some medical conditions e. g. diabetes, age, and nutrition among other factors contribute to sores development (Neizgoda et al., 2006). There are two theories that explain how sores develop. The first one, which is most accepted, claims that they begin around the skeleton and move outwards towards the skin. The second theory claims that deterioration begins with the skin and proceeds into the muscles (Wilkinson and Stone, 2008). Either way, there are four stages of sores development. First is the superficial stage where the topmost layer of the skin becomes hyperemic even when the pressure is relieved. The area may be painful with an unusual texture and higher or lower temperatures than normal. It is easy to identify in light-skinned people where the skin is reddened, then in dark-skinned people where the skin shows purple or blue shades (Brem et al., 2004). The second stage involves damages to the epidermis and the dermis creating a blister. In the third stage, damages extend to the subcutaneous layer which is hard to heal because it has a poor blood supply.  

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