Sunday, February 24, 2019

Psychotropic Medication Essay

A mind-expanding medication is a dose that can affect the mind, manner and emotions. It can be utilise to treat some(prenominal) mental disorders. In recent years, with the advancement of mental sciences, thither has been a sudden summation in handling of psychotropic medications for the interposition of several mental disorders. However, it is still not clearly understood whether these would be safe and efficient e genuinelywhere the tenacious run. Some of the psychotropic medications, which atomic number 18 increasingly being utilize, tardily implicate antidepressants, antianxiety medicates, antipsychotics, and antiepileptic drugs (Weller, 2007, Thompson, 2001 & Kohen, 2005). A study was conducted by Freeman et al (1998), to study the efficacy and safety of multi-drug therapy in the give-and-take of resistant (refractory) bipolar disorder. In the past, physicians and researchers tolerate faced a lot of unvoicedies in the treatment of bipolar disorders. The seve rity of the disease and the range of symptoms that can develop convert extensively from wizard undivided to another. The length of the illness, response to treatment, chances of recurrences, outcomes, etc, vary from one case to another and fronts on several factors.However, during the last half a century, the use of medications has existingly helped to improve the outcome of bipolar disorders. Several drugs have come into the picture in the treatment of bipolar disorders, which have been utilized during various periods. Some of the drugs include lithium, chloropromazine, carbamazepine, haloperidol, calcium-channel blockers, clozapine, risperidol, lamotrigine, gabapentin, olanzapine, etc. Although, a variety of drugs ar currently available for the treatment of bipolar disorder, it remains a real ch whollyenge to man term. The range of symptoms be so vast that it is often difficult to manage it with a ace drug. Hence, a confederacy of drugs has to be utilized for a short-t erm period.The author researched various drugs utilized in the treatment including lithium, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, valproate, verapamil, olanzapine, nimodipine, benzodiazepines, amlodipine, neuroleptics, gabapentin, clonazepam, clozapine, and risperidone. Studies conducted in patients consuming lithium and sodium valproate have demonstrated that the chances of recurrences were a good deal lesser. The chances of ominous make were alike slightly higher. But, weighing the disadvantages against the advantages demonstrated that valproate and lithium combination was efficient. On the other hand lithium utilized on with carbamazepine demonstrated that only in certain cases this combination was effective and safe.However, in comorbid disease of the brain, the combination was best avoided. Studies have shown that the valproate carbamazepine combination has a synergetic effect, but there are associated dangers of serious array make. Hence, it would be wise from preliminary tes ts itself to avoid this combination. To several purposes, the data currently available searchs to be inconsistent and there is an imperative need to conduct comprehensive drug trials. The physician should be able to coiffe the risk of developing unbecoming effect and accordingly modify the treatment.The main issue of combination therapy is that there are greater chances of damage occurring imputable to associated drug interaction and individual actions of the drug. However, as the drugs may have a synergistic effect, the capablenessity for huge mensuration of benefits too exist. other adverse issue that exists with combination therapy is the potential for not complying with the treatment plan. The patient may stop taking the drugs due to the several font cause (Freeman et al, 1998). Studies have demonstrated that in spitefulness of a dearth of long studies (to determine the safety and efficacy of the drug), more drugs are being utilized in children. This is the most sensitive age group, and every negative reaction can have a life-long effect. currently the drugs utilized in children have been only assessed for their short-term and medium-term effect. many another(prenominal) drugs, which depend to be safe, are seldom effective for long-periods of time. However, many drugs that do seem effective may not in fact be safe.In a study conducted by Hussain on children suffering from ADHD, he prepare that about 25 % of the patients administered olanzapine and 30 % administered risperidone stopped the drug due to several reasons. The main reasons for stopping the drug included poor response during the sign stages of drug therapy and the development of several case cause ( much(prenominal) as sedation, confusion, agitation, nausea, vomiting, etc). later on a period of three months, there was an improvement in the symptoms and signs of ADHD.Another issues, which also need to be con grimacered in adolescents, are the issue of drug submission. Chi ldren are more likely not to comply with treatment compared to adults. Children may not comply with the doses when the side effects associated with the drug are high. Many children would not be consuming the drug as they feel that it would not be beneficial in any way. However, scientists do feel that with the coming of advanced studying techniques and the development of safer drug profiles, the chances of developing side effects have significantly dropped in children (Weller, 2007). During the breast-feeding period, it is classic for the physician to advert that any drug consumed by the breed would not only have an adverse effect on her, but also on the baby. This is because the drug or its metabolite may be expressed in the breast milk. Previously, women in urgent need of psychotropic medications were advised to avoid breastfeeding the child. However, nowadays, the physicians would have to give a judgment call depending on the nature of the drug consumed and the risk of potent ial side effects.The chances of ill effects developing in the child depend on the quantity of drug expressed in the breast milk. Children having liver-colored function defects or those born prematurely are at a greater risk of developing side effects. Besides, the heart and the kidney function also play an important role. During the nursing period, the physician should be able to determine the chances of developing risk, and accordingly advise the mother. It is very important to study the extent of the mental health disorder, the support from the family members, womens chances of complying and adhering to the treatment, etc.It is important to note that during the nursing period, a healthy mother would be in a better situation to take foreboding of the baby, than an ill mother. It is also important to note that any drug, which has a beneficial effect on the body, would also be having a side effect. Thus it is found that a single drug utilized in measly doses would be having minimal amount of side effects compared to other drugs. However, the psychiatrist may want to postulate a combination of two or more drug in order to improve the benefits.In such cases, the risk for side effects would be high, especially in the baby. The psychiatrist should work in skinny coordination with the mother, family members and the pediatrician In all cases, the chances of benefits should outweigh that of the risks from occurring. In cases, the health of the mother is at stake, and she requires a combination of drugs, it would be advisable to stop breastfeeding and harvest-festival to this healthy practice only when the drug therapy is completely stopped (Kohen, 2005).Recently, newer antidepressants drugs are being available in the market. These antidepressants have fewer side effects, are more effective and act very fast. Although, the chances of developing squirt side effects were small in number, the chances of developing the more serious ones occurred on fewer occasions. H owever, the recent drug trials have been unable to determine the long-term side effects. In this regard, more number of drug trials need to be conducted. Many researchers have suggested that as chances of serious side effects are also present, it would be advisable to follow certain precautions.These include nearly monitoring the drug therapy, administering for short periods of time, using other treatment measures such as psychotherapeutics as first line, starting from a low dosage and slowly increasing it depending on the patients response, layover of alcohol and other drugs, etc. Certain warning signs need to be looked into to determine the chances of side effects from developing. Studies have shown that usually minor side effects occur more frequently than the major ones.Studies conducted through clinical trials have demonstrated that the chances of side effects were particularly higher in those who consumed the drug than the placebo. However, it would also be interesting to n ote that patients receiving the placebo took longer time to recover from the disease than those who received the drug. If a drug has only minor side effects are well tolerated in the body, then it should be preferred to one that causes major side effects. Psychiatrists prefer to use psychotropic medications for short period of time, in order to avoid the chances of side effects from developing (Jureidini et al, 2005).Another approach that also seems to be beneficial includes have the drug with other drugs in order to decrease the dosage. In all cases, the patients treatment with drug therapy needs to be tight monitored in order to determine the chances of side effects and benefits from developing. As the effects of several drugs on the developing baby are not known, its use should be restricted during pregnancy and lactation. Further research needs to be conducted in this regard (Jureidini et al, 2005, Kohen, 2005, Gazley, 2004 & Freeman, 1998).Psychotropic medications have the po tential of causing side effects and also helping to improve the outcome of the condition. The risk of side effects may be difficult to manage and to predict. However, if certain measures are followed, they could be kept to a minimal. Some of the measures that are required include-Conducting detailed drug trials to asses the potential side-effects and benefitsEnsuring that the drug trials are conducted for determining the long term effectsMonitoring the drug administration of the patient reservation a thorough risk assessment (weighting the risks and the benefits) in each and very case.Making sure that the factors, which would result in the development of side effects, are discussed and addressed appropriately.Taking care whilst administering drugs to pregnant women and nursing mothers.Taking care whilst administering drugs to sensitive groups such as children, elders, etc.Taking care whilst administering combination drugs (as they could have a synergistic effect)Seeking patients com pliance and adherence to the drug therapy.Modifying the other factors that alter the course of the disease.To ensure that the drug are administered in low doses for short period of time.Using psychotherapy as an adjuvant.ReferencesFreeman, M. P. & Stoll, A. L. (1998). Mood Stabilizer Combinations A Review of Safety and Efficacy. Am J Psych, 155, 12-21. http//, J. (2004). attempt Email Answer 7 Psychotropic Drugs. What are the side effects? Retrieved on December 12, 2007, from Ask the internet Therapist Web localise http//, J. N., Doecke, C. J., Mansfield, P. R. (2004). Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents. BMJ, 328, 879-883.http//, D. (2005). Psychotropic medication and breast-feeding. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 371-379. http// 5/371.pdfThompson, L. L. (2001). Neuropsychological Testing. In. Jacobson (Ed), Psychiatric Secrets, Philadelphia Hanley & Belfus.Weller, E. B. (2007). Issues in Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Medscape. http//

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